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===Cultural appropriation===
 
===Cultural appropriation===
   
Cultural appropriation is the act of taking things from another culture that belong only to that culture. Cultural appropriation is a mistake that nonbinary people themselves can make. There are many words for [[gender identity|gender identities]] and [[gender expression]]s that belong only to people of color, or only to a certain ethnicity or culture. People from other ethnicities and cultures aren't entitled to call themselves by those words, because they would be taking something that doesn't belong to them. For example, the gender/sexual identities of [[ag]] (aggressive) and [[Glossary_of_English_gender_and_sex_terminology#S|stud]] originated in Black and Latinx/Hispanic culture<ref>{{cite news|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081022063719/http://www.villagevoice.com/2007-04-03/nyc-life/girls-to-men/|archive-date=22 October 2008|date=3 April 2007|url=http://www.villagevoice.com/2007-04-03/nyc-life/girls-to-men/|title=Girls to Men|last=Hilliard|first=Chloe A.|newspaper=The Village Voice}}</ref>, thus only those groups of people can call themselves by these words. Only people of color can reclaim the term [[third gender]], because Western anthropologists had only applied it to [[LGBTQ]] people of color in a way that othered them.
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Cultural appropriation is the act of taking things from another culture that belong only to that culture. Cultural appropriation is a mistake that nonbinary people themselves can make. There are many words for [[gender nonconforming]] [[gender identity|gender identities]] and [[gender expression|gender expressions]] that belong only to people of color, or only to a certain ethnicity or culture. People from other ethnicities and cultures aren't entitled to call themselves by those words, because they would be taking something that doesn't belong to them. For example, the gender/sexual identities of ag, [[Glossary_of_English_gender_and_sex_terminology#S|stud]], and [[boi]] originated in African-American culture, and only African-American people can call themselves by these words. Only people of color can reclaim the term [[third gender]], because Western anthropologists had only applied it to [[LGBT]] people of color in a way that othered them.
   
Cultural appropriation generally refers to a white person taking something that should only belong to people of color. Generally speaking, the reverse is not cultural appropriation: identities that originated among white people are available for anyone to adopt. This is because cultural appropriation is generally a problem of white oppressors taking substance away from oppressed people of color for their own use. An oppressed people can't do comparable harm to their oppressors. However, it is still a problem for people of color to appropriate from the cultures of different groups of people of color. For example, a Black nonbinary person is not entitled to call themself Two-Spirit, as this identity can only be adopted by Native Americans. That case is still cultural appropriation.
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Cultural appropriation generally refers to a white person taking something that should only belong to people of color. Generally speaking, the reverse is not cultural appropriation: identities that originated among white people are available for anyone to adopt. This is because cultural appropriation is generally a problem of white oppressors taking substance away from oppressed people of color for their own use. An oppressed people can't do comparable harm to their oppressors. However, it is still a problem for people of color to appropriate from the cultures of different groups of people of color. For example, an African-American nonbinary person is not entitled to call themself Two-Spirit, as this identity can only be adopted by Native Americans. That case is still cultural appropriation.
   
Sometimes there is dispute about whether a word belongs only to a certain culture, and if so, to which. The word "boi" has many meanings in different groups, and there are currently people of all ethnic backgrounds who call themselves by that word. A person who studies language and tells people how they should talk (a prescriptivist linguist) may say the word should still only be used by Black people. A different kind of linguist, who documents how language is used, without telling people what to do (a descriptivist linguist), would have a different view. Another dispute is about the name and description of the nonbinary gender identity [[pangender]] ("pan" meaning all). Critics express the concern that this means that person also has all ethnic genders. Otherwise, such a person should only say they have "many genders," and call themself [[multigender]]. Supporters of the word "pangender" say that by "all genders," they only mean all the genders that they're entitled to, within their own ethnicity and culture.
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Sometimes there is dispute about whether a word belongs only to a certain culture, and if so, to which. The word "boi" has many meanings in different groups, and there are currently people of all ethnic backgrounds who call themselves by that word. A person who studies language and tells people how they should talk (a prescriptivist linguist) may say the word should still only be used by African-Americans. A different kind of linguist, who documents how language is used, without telling people what to do (a descriptivist linguist), would have a different view. Another dispute is about the name and description of the nonbinary gender identity [[pangender]] ("pan" meaning all). Critics express the concern that this means that person also has all ethnic genders. Otherwise, such a person should only say they have "many genders," and call themself [[multigender]]. Supporters of the word "pangender" say that by "all genders," they only mean all the genders that they're entitled to, within their own ethnicity and culture.
   
 
People can do cultural appropriation by accident, not knowing or thinking enough about it. For example, a nonbinary person can easily make up the word "Two-Spirit" or "third gender" for themself, without knowing that these words already had another meaning. It could be an innocent coincidence. Once that person finds out, the right thing to do is to let go of those words, and take up different words for themself.
 
People can do cultural appropriation by accident, not knowing or thinking enough about it. For example, a nonbinary person can easily make up the word "Two-Spirit" or "third gender" for themself, without knowing that these words already had another meaning. It could be an innocent coincidence. Once that person finds out, the right thing to do is to let go of those words, and take up different words for themself.
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* If you want to take up a certain word for your gender identity, do research on it before you start using it for yourself. Learn all you can about the word's history. Find out if it's mostly or only used by people of certain ethnicities or cultures. If so, and you don't have that ethnicity or culture, then you are not entitled to use it. Don't use that word, and look for a different word to which you are entitled.
 
* If you want to take up a certain word for your gender identity, do research on it before you start using it for yourself. Learn all you can about the word's history. Find out if it's mostly or only used by people of certain ethnicities or cultures. If so, and you don't have that ethnicity or culture, then you are not entitled to use it. Don't use that word, and look for a different word to which you are entitled.
 
** You might find a controversy about whether people like you are entitled to the word, so you aren't sure if you can use it. If so, then give much thought to how you would feel about being seen as connected to that controversy, and how you would feel about often defending your use of it.
 
** You might find a controversy about whether people like you are entitled to the word, so you aren't sure if you can use it. If so, then give much thought to how you would feel about being seen as connected to that controversy, and how you would feel about often defending your use of it.
** If you wish you could take up for yourself a nonbinary gender identity label that is only for people of color, and you make up a new gender label that is very derivative of that one, that is still appropriation. For example, if a white person wished they could call themself Two-Spirit, which is for Native Americans only, it would still be appropriation if that person made and took up a label derivative of those, such as "three-spirit." <ref>http://gendersintensify.tumblr.com/post/80095478587/shitrichcollegekidssay-i-wanted-to-take-a {{dead link}}</ref>
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** If you wish you could take up for yourself a nonbinary gender identity label that is only for people of color, and you make up a new gender label that is very derivative of that one, that is still appropriation. For example, if a white person wished they could call themself Two-Spirit, which is for Native Americans only, it would still be appropriation if that person made and took up a label derivative of those, such as "three-spirit." <ref>http://gendersintensify.tumblr.com/post/80095478587/shitrichcollegekidssay-i-wanted-to-take-a</ref>
 
* Don't compare sexism to racism. Find a way to get other people to understand about sexism, without making that one analogy.
 
* Don't compare sexism to racism. Find a way to get other people to understand about sexism, without making that one analogy.
 
* Be careful about how you talk about the genders of people from other cultures, or from long ago. Even though it might be hard to find out, do your best to show respect by using the words and views that those people would use for themselves. It might be wrong to call them by Western or modern words, such as transgender, nonbinary, or third gender. It also might be wrong to re-frame their gender from a Western, modern perspective, such as telling their life story in a way that makes it fit into the [[transgender narrative]]. That said, the language from their time and place may be seen as offensive in ours, so this needs to be handled carefully as well.
 
* Be careful about how you talk about the genders of people from other cultures, or from long ago. Even though it might be hard to find out, do your best to show respect by using the words and views that those people would use for themselves. It might be wrong to call them by Western or modern words, such as transgender, nonbinary, or third gender. It also might be wrong to re-frame their gender from a Western, modern perspective, such as telling their life story in a way that makes it fit into the [[transgender narrative]]. That said, the language from their time and place may be seen as offensive in ours, so this needs to be handled carefully as well.

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