Difference between revisions of "Gender recognition"

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[[File:Nonbinary-recognition-map.svg|thumb|600px|right|Recognition map.]]
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[[File:World_map_nonbinary_gender_recognition.svg|thumb|600px|right|Map of recognition of nonbinary gender. (Graphic may not be as up to date as the rest of this article.)<br>
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* Dark blue: Non-binary / third gender option available as voluntary opt-in
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* Yellow: Opt-in for intersex people only
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* Orange: Mandatory for some born intersex, and opt in
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* Red: Mandatory for some born intersex
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* Grey: Nonbinary / third gender option not legally recognized / no data]]
  
 
'''Recognition of [[Nonbinary gender|non-binary gender identities]]''' in law and other paperwork is an important issue confronting modern society. This also deals with policies about [[transgender]] people in general and related policies about [[intersex]] people. Recognition here means whether an organization acknowledges that such people exist and have valid identities, and the organization does this by routinely giving them a place where they aren't forced into being wrongly categorized as a [[gender]] that doesn't match their [[gender identity]]. In the case of recognition of nonbinary people, this means the system doesn't force them to wrongly say they are one of the [[binary genders]] ([[female]] or [[male]]). Through networking and [[activism]], people can find out which organisations acknowledge non-binary genders, and can ask for acknowledgement from organisations that still need to do so.
 
'''Recognition of [[Nonbinary gender|non-binary gender identities]]''' in law and other paperwork is an important issue confronting modern society. This also deals with policies about [[transgender]] people in general and related policies about [[intersex]] people. Recognition here means whether an organization acknowledges that such people exist and have valid identities, and the organization does this by routinely giving them a place where they aren't forced into being wrongly categorized as a [[gender]] that doesn't match their [[gender identity]]. In the case of recognition of nonbinary people, this means the system doesn't force them to wrongly say they are one of the [[binary genders]] ([[female]] or [[male]]). Through networking and [[activism]], people can find out which organisations acknowledge non-binary genders, and can ask for acknowledgement from organisations that still need to do so.
  
 
For international recognition on the Internet, see [[websites and social networks]].
 
For international recognition on the Internet, see [[websites and social networks]].
 
 
  
 
== Recognition worldwide ==
 
== Recognition worldwide ==
  
One international problem is that all passports and other identity documents list gender (they are usually called "[[sex]]"),<ref>Lauren Bishop. "Gender and Sex Designations for Identification Purposes: A Discussion on Inclusive Documentation for a Less Assimilationist Society." 30 Wis. J.L. Gender & Soc'y 131, 134-35. Fall 2015 (containing a broad comparative discussion of this problem in academic legal scholarship). available at http://hosted.law.wisc.edu/wordpress/wjlgs/fall-2015-volume-xxx-no-2/</ref> and most countries require that gender to be either female or male.<ref>"X gender markers on passports." http://lgbt.libdems.org.uk/en/page/x-gender-markers-on-passports</ref> A few countries allow passports to have a nonbinary gender marker, called X (unspecified), T ([[transgender]] or [[third gender]]), E ([[eunuch]]), I ([[intersex]]) or O ([[other]]), depending on the country. Having a nonbinary marker on one's passport can make it impossible to [[travel]] to a country whose passports don't give that option.<ref>Aron Macarow. "These Seven Countries are Way Ahead of the US on Trans Issues." February 9, 2015. Attn. http://www.attn.com/stories/868/transgender-passport-status</ref>
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One international problem is that all passports and other identity documents list gender (they are usually called "[[sex]]"),<ref>Lauren Bishop. "Gender and Sex Designations for Identification Purposes: A Discussion on Inclusive Documentation for a Less Assimilationist Society." 30 Wis. J.L. Gender & Soc'y 131, 134-35. Fall 2015 (containing a broad comparative discussion of this problem in academic legal scholarship). available at http://hosted.law.wisc.edu/wordpress/wjlgs/fall-2015-volume-xxx-no-2/</ref> and most countries require that gender to be either female or male.<ref>"X gender markers on passports." http://lgbt.libdems.org.uk/en/page/x-gender-markers-on-passports</ref> A few countries allow passports to have a nonbinary gender marker, called X (unspecified or [[X-gender]]), T ([[transgender]] or [[third gender]]), E ([[eunuch]]), I ([[intersex]]) or O ([[other]]), depending on the country. Having a nonbinary marker on one's passport can make it impossible to [[travel]] to a country whose passports don't give that option.<ref>Aron Macarow. "These Seven Countries are Way Ahead of the US on Trans Issues." February 9, 2015. Attn. http://www.attn.com/stories/868/transgender-passport-status</ref>
  
 
Another global problem for transgender rights is that many countries require too much of a transgender person in order to allow them to have a legal transition. Many countries require proof of [[surgery]] in order to do this. Many countries even require transgender people to go through bottom surgeries that would effectively [[Sterilization|sterilize]] them in order to [[transition]]. International law calls compulsory sterilization a crime against humanity,<ref>As quoted by Guy Horton in Dying Alive - A Legal Assessment of Human Rights Violations in Burma April 2005, co-Funded by The Netherlands Ministry for Development Co-Operation. See section "12.52 Crimes against humanity", Page 201. He references RSICC/C, Vol. 1 p. 360</ref><ref>Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court http://legal.un.org/icc/statute/romefra.htm</ref> but it is still the law in many countries.
 
Another global problem for transgender rights is that many countries require too much of a transgender person in order to allow them to have a legal transition. Many countries require proof of [[surgery]] in order to do this. Many countries even require transgender people to go through bottom surgeries that would effectively [[Sterilization|sterilize]] them in order to [[transition]]. International law calls compulsory sterilization a crime against humanity,<ref>As quoted by Guy Horton in Dying Alive - A Legal Assessment of Human Rights Violations in Burma April 2005, co-Funded by The Netherlands Ministry for Development Co-Operation. See section "12.52 Crimes against humanity", Page 201. He references RSICC/C, Vol. 1 p. 360</ref><ref>Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court http://legal.un.org/icc/statute/romefra.htm</ref> but it is still the law in many countries.
  
In the table below, countries are listed in alphabetical order, with an easily memorable colour code to make it easier to skim:
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In the table below, countries are listed in alphabetical order. To make them easier to skim, they use a colour code based on traffic lights:
  
* <span style="color: #6cc">Blue(#9FF)</span> means it's friendly to nonbinary people.
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* Blue (#9FF) means it's friendly to nonbinary people. This can mean it allows unspecified gender options.
* <span style="color: #cc8">Yellow(#FFB)</span> means it's somewhat friendly to nonbinary people.  
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* Yellow (#FFB) means it's somewhat friendly to nonbinary people. This can mean it plans to become friendly to nonbinary people. Or it can mean the country is divided on giving nonbinary people their rights, but leaning toward acceptance.  
* <span style="color: #6c6">Light Green(#9f9)</span> means the country allows unspecified options.
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* Red (#F99) means it's not friendly at all to nonbinary people.
* <span style="color: #060">Dark Green(#0C0)</span> means the country is divided on giving nonbinary people their rights, with a general acceptance.
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* White or blank background means we don't have information about this yet, or it's difficult to call whether it's more good or bad for nonbinary people.  
* <span style="color: #B40">Orange(#E85)</span> means the country is divided on giving nonbinary people their rights, with a general denial of rights.
 
* <span style="color: #f99">Red(#F99)</span> means it's not friendly at all to nonbinary people.
 
* '''white background''' means we don't have information about this yet, or some other situation (describe).
 
* <span style="color: #909>Purple</span> means it plans to be friendly to nonbinary people.
 
  
  
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!  Nonbinary markers allowed on passports or other identity documents?
 
!  Nonbinary markers allowed on passports or other identity documents?
 
!  Legal gender change requirements
 
!  Legal gender change requirements
!  Government Views
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!  Other notes on transgender, nonbinary, and intersex rights, recognition, and government views
!  Other notes on transgender, nonbinary, and intersex rights and recognition
 
 
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| [[Recognition (Australia)|Australia]]
 
| [[Recognition (Australia)|Australia]]
| style="background-color:#9ff;" |  Australia allows nonbinary ''and'' intersex people to get passports with the nonbinary gender marker "X (indeterminate/unspecified/intersex)," requiring only a letter from a doctor, not proof of surgery.<ref>https://www.passports.gov.au/web/sexgenderapplicants.aspx</ref> Can change birth certificate to "sex: not specified."<ref>"NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages v Norrie [2014] HCA 11 (2 April 2014)" . High Court of Australia. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2015. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/2014/11.html</ref>
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| style="background-color:#9ff;" |  Starting in 2000, Australia allows nonbinary ''and'' intersex people to get passports with the nonbinary gender marker "X (indeterminate/unspecified/intersex)," requiring only a letter from a doctor, not proof of surgery.<ref>https://www.passports.gov.au/web/sexgenderapplicants.aspx</ref> Can change birth certificate to "sex: not specified."<ref>"NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages v Norrie [2014] HCA 11 (2 April 2014)" . High Court of Australia. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2015. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/2014/11.html</ref><ref>"X marks the spot for intersex Alex" Archived 2013-11-11 at WebCite, West Australian, via bodieslikeours.org. 11 January 2003 https://www.webcitation.org/6L2hqf44G?url=http://www.bodieslikeours.org/pdf/xmarks.pdf</ref><ref>Holme, Ingrid (2008). "Hearing People's Own Stories". Science as Culture. 17 (3): 341–344. doi:10.1080/09505430802280784. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09505430802280784</ref>
| style="background-color:#9f9;" | Can change birth certificate, including to a nonbinary option, "sex: not specified," if the person has had a "sex affirmation procedure".<ref>"NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages v Norrie [2014] HCA 11 (2 April 2014)" . High Court of Australia. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2015. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/2014/11.html</ref>
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| style="background-color:#FFB;" | Can change birth certificate, including to a nonbinary option, "sex: not specified," if the person has had a "sex affirmation procedure".<ref>"NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages v Norrie [2014] HCA 11 (2 April 2014)" . High Court of Australia. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2015. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/2014/11.html</ref> However, people have to be unmarried at the time of the change.<ref>"BIRTHS, DEATHS AND MARRIAGES REGISTRATION ACT 1995 - SECT 32B Application to alter register to record change of sex" . Retrieved 26 July 2015. http://www5.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/bdamra1995383/s32b.html</ref>
 
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| style="background-color:#FFB;" | However, people have to be unmarried at the time of the change.<ref>"BIRTHS, DEATHS AND MARRIAGES REGISTRATION ACT 1995 - SECT 32B Application to alter register to record change of sex" . Retrieved 26 July 2015. http://www5.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_act/bdamra1995383/s32b.html</ref>
 
 
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| [[Recognition (Austria)|Austria]]
 
| [[Recognition (Austria)|Austria]]
| style="background-color:#f99;" | M or F only. As of June 2016, intersex activist Alex Jürgen is attempting to get a different gender recognised on both the birth certificate and the passport.<ref>"Austria may legally recognize 3rd gender as intersex person challenges authorities in court." RT. June 23, 2016. https://www.rt.com/news/347857-austria-intersex-person-lawsuit/</ref>
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| style="background-color:#9FF;" | The first passport with an "X" as a gender marker was issued on May 14, 2019 to the [[intersex]] activist [[Alex Jürgen]], thanks to the country's constitutional court, who ruled that citizens have the right to have their gender identity accurately represented in their official documents.<ref name="pinknews_austria">[https://www.pinknews.co.uk/2019/05/14/austria-third-gender-option-documents/ Austria recognises third gender option in official documents] — PinkNews.co.uk</ref>
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map">Europe Map & Index 2017." ''Transgender Europe''. http://tgeu.org/trans-rights-map-2017/</ref>
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| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map">Europe Map & Index 2017." ''Transgender Europe''. http://tgeu.org/trans-rights-map-2017/</ref> As for the civil registry, the term "divers" can be used as long as the person can provide a document certifying their [[intersexual|intersexuality]].<ref name="pinknews_austria"/>
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| style="background-color:#FFB;" | It is possible to change to an ambiguous name. However, there are high fees for a name change unless one can prove to have a reason that is approved by the state. A name that doesn't correspond to the legal gender can also be chosen, but only as a second or third name - the name that is listed first has to correspond to the legal gender or be ambiguous.<ref>"Vornamensänderung." TransX. http://www.transx.at/Pub/Recht_Vornamen.php</ref>
| It is possible to change to an ambiguous name. However, there are high fees for a name change unless one can prove to have a reason that is approved by the state. A name that doesn't correspond to the legal gender can also be chosen, but only as a second or third name - the name that is listed first has to correspond to the legal gender or be ambiguous.<ref>"Vornamensänderung." TransX. http://www.transx.at/Pub/Recht_Vornamen.php</ref>
 
 
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| [[Recognition (Argentina)|Argentina]]
 
| [[Recognition (Argentina)|Argentina]]
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| style="background-color:#9ff;" | Identity documents can be issued without a gender marker at all thanks to the Gender Identity Law, passed in 2012. In November 2018, two nonbinary people were able to make this change without a judicial procedure for the first time.<ref>[https://www.pagina12.com.ar/152857-dni-sin-indicacion-de-sexo-y-como-un-tramite DNI sin indicación de sexo y como un trámite] — Página12 (in Spanish)</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Argentina allows transgender people to get access to legal and medical resources they need to transition, without requiring these things in order to be legally recognized as their gender. They can change their legal gender based on their written declaration, without even a diagnosis.<ref>"Argentina Adopts Groundbreaking Gender Identity Law." Transgender Europe. May 10, 2012. http://tgeu.org/argentina-adopts-ground-breaking-gender-identity-law/</ref> See Argentina's Gender Identity Law as of 2012 [http://tgeu.org/argentina-gender-identity-law/ here]. While this law is said to be the most progressive transgender law in the world,<ref>"FAQ about identity documents." Lambda Legal. http://www.lambdalegal.org/know-your-rights/transgender/identity-document-faq</ref> it doesn't directly mention intersex or nonbinary people.
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Argentina allows transgender people to get access to legal and medical resources they need to transition, without requiring these things in order to be legally recognized as their gender. They can change their legal gender based on their written declaration, without even a diagnosis.<ref>"Argentina Adopts Groundbreaking Gender Identity Law." Transgender Europe. May 10, 2012. http://tgeu.org/argentina-adopts-ground-breaking-gender-identity-law/</ref> See Argentina's Gender Identity Law as of 2012 [http://tgeu.org/argentina-gender-identity-law/ here]. While this law is said to be the most progressive transgender law in the world,<ref>"FAQ about identity documents." Lambda Legal. http://www.lambdalegal.org/know-your-rights/transgender/identity-document-faq</ref> it doesn't directly mention intersex or nonbinary people.
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| [[Recognition (Armenia)|Armenia]]
 
| [[Recognition (Armenia)|Armenia]]
 
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| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
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| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
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| [[Recognition (Bangladesh)|Bangladesh]]
 
| [[Recognition (Bangladesh)|Bangladesh]]
 
| style="background-color:#9ff;" |  In 2011, started to allow passports to show a gender called "other".<ref>http://www.attn.com/stories/868/transgender-passport-status</ref><ref>Tristin Hopper, "Genderless passports ‘under review’ in Canada." May 8, 2012. National Post. http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/genderless-passports-under-review-in-canada</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#9ff;" |  In 2011, started to allow passports to show a gender called "other".<ref>http://www.attn.com/stories/868/transgender-passport-status</ref><ref>Tristin Hopper, "Genderless passports ‘under review’ in Canada." May 8, 2012. National Post. http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/genderless-passports-under-review-in-canada</ref>
 
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| [[Recognition (Belarus)|Belarus]]
 
| [[Recognition (Belarus)|Belarus]]
 
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| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
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| [[Recognition (Belgium)|Belgium]]
 
| [[Recognition (Belgium)|Belgium]]
 
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| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref>(Since 1 January 2018:) Loi du 25 juin 2017 réformant des régimes relatifs aux personnes transgenres en ce qui concerne la mention d'une modification de l'enregistrement du sexe dans les actes de l'état civil et ses effets http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/eli/loi/2017/06/25/2017012964/justel Wet van 25 juni 2017 tot hervorming van regelingen inzake transgenders wat de vermelding van een aanpassing van de registratie van het geslacht in de akten van de burgerlijke stand en de gevolgen hiervan betreft http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/eli/wet/2017/06/25/2017012964/justel</ref>
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| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref>(Since 1 January 2018:) Loi du 25 juin 2017 réformant des régimes relatifs aux personnes transgenres en ce qui concerne la mention d'une modification de l'enregistrement du sexe dans les actes de l'état civil et ses effets http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/eli/loi/2017/06/25/2017012964/justel Wet van 25 juni 2017 tot hervorming van regelingen inzake transgenders wat de vermelding van een aanpassing van de registratie van het geslacht in de akten van de burgerlijke stand en de gevolgen hiervan betreft http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/eli/wet/2017/06/25/2017012964/justel</ref>  
| The government publishes vacancy notes with the mention "M/F/X".<ref>M/F devient M/F/X: l’administration fédérale veut plus de neutralité liée au sexe lors des recrutements http://www.selor.be/fr/nouvelles/2015/12/mf-devient-mfx-l’administration-fédérale-veut-plus-de-neutralité-liée-au-sexe-lors-des-recrutements/ M/V wordt M/V/X: federale overheid wil meer genderneutraliteit in vacatures http://www.selor.be/nl/nieuws/2015/12/mv-wordt-mvx-federale-overheid-wil-meer-genderneutraliteit-in-vacatures/</ref>
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| style="background-color:#9ff;" | The government publishes vacancy notes with the mention "M/F/X".<ref>M/F devient M/F/X: l’administration fédérale veut plus de neutralité liée au sexe lors des recrutements http://www.selor.be/fr/nouvelles/2015/12/mf-devient-mfx-l’administration-fédérale-veut-plus-de-neutralité-liée-au-sexe-lors-des-recrutements/ M/V wordt M/V/X: federale overheid wil meer genderneutraliteit in vacatures http://www.selor.be/nl/nieuws/2015/12/mv-wordt-mvx-federale-overheid-wil-meer-genderneutraliteit-in-vacatures/</ref> Anti-discrimination legislation covers gender identity and expression. <ref>Loi du 10 mai 2007 tendant à lutter contre la discrimination entre les femmes et les hommes http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/eli/loi/2007/05/10/2007002098/justel Wet ter bestrijding van discriminatie tussen vrouwen en mannen http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/eli/wet/2007/05/10/2007002098/justel</ref>
| Anti-discrimination legislation covers gender identity and expression. <ref>Loi du 10 mai 2007 tendant à lutter contre la discrimination entre les femmes et les hommes http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/eli/loi/2007/05/10/2007002098/justel Wet ter bestrijding van discriminatie tussen vrouwen en mannen http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/eli/wet/2007/05/10/2007002098/justel</ref>  
 
 
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| [[Recognition (Bolivia)|Bolivia]]
 
| [[Recognition (Bolivia)|Bolivia]]
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| style="background-color:#ffb;" | Since August 2016, transgender people in Bolivia can change their legal gender as long as they are over 18 years old, pass a psychological test and write a letter of application.<ref>[https://www.telesurenglish.net/news/Bolivia-Lets-Transgender-People-Choose-Their-Legal-Identity-20160802-0034.html Bolivia Lets Transgender People Choose Their Legal Identity] — Tele Sur (English edition).</ref>
 
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| style="background-color:#f99;" |  "Transgender people in Bolivia will soon be able to legally change their name, sex and gender."<ref>Joe Williams, "Trans people win right to change name and gender in Bolivia." November 28, 2015. Pink News (news). http://www.pinknews.co.uk/2015/11/28/trans-people-win-right-to-change-name-and-gender-in-bolivia/</ref>
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| [[Recognition (Bosnia and Herzegovina)|Bosnia and Herzegovina]]
 
| [[Recognition (Bosnia and Herzegovina)|Bosnia and Herzegovina]]
 
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| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
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| [[Recognition (Bulgaria)|Bulgaria]]
 
| [[Recognition (Bulgaria)|Bulgaria]]
 
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| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
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| [[Recognition (Cambodia)|Cambodia]]
 
| [[Recognition (Cambodia)|Cambodia]]
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| [[Recognition (Canada)|Canada]]
 
| [[Recognition (Canada)|Canada]]
| style="background-color:#edf;" |  Canada intends to have full support for "X" markers on passports "soon" <ref name="change-sex-ca">http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/passport/apply/new/change-sex.asp</ref>. Interim measures are in place which allow applicants to freely choose an "M" or "F" marker and the option to add an observation indicating the passport bearer's sex should be read as unspecified <ref name="change-sex-ca" />. Several provinces issue birth certificates and other identification with "X".
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| style="background-color:#9ff" |  As of June 2019, Canada allows for "X" in the sex field of immigration documents including passports and proof of citizenship certificates <ref>https://www.canada.ca/en/immigration-refugees-citizenship/news/notices/gender-x-documents.html</ref>. Some provinces allow-- or plan to soon allow-- hidden or "X" markers on identity documents such as birth certificates and driver's licenses; see [[Recognition (Canada)]] for the latest details on which.
| style="background-color:#0C0;" |  Requirements vary from province to province. Generally minimally medical intervention is required.  
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| style="background-color:#FFB;" |  Requirements vary from province to province. Generally minimally medical intervention is required. Explicit anti-discrimination protections for transgender people only in Alberta, Northwest Territories, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Ontario, implicit elsewhere.
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| style="background-color:#0C0;" | Explicit anti-discrimination protections for transgender people only in Alberta, Northwest Territories, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Ontario, implicit elsewhere.
 
 
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| [[Recognition (Colombia)|Colombia]]
 
| [[Recognition (Colombia)|Colombia]]
 
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| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Since 2015, transgender persons can change their legal gender and name manifesting their solemn will before a notar, no surgeries or judicial order required.<ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LGBT_rights_by_country_or_territory#cite_note-143</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Since 2015, transgender persons can change their legal gender and name manifesting their solemn will before a notar, no surgeries or judicial order required.<ref>https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LGBT_rights_by_country_or_territory#cite_note-143</ref>
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| [[Recognition (Croatia)|Croatia]]
 
| [[Recognition (Croatia)|Croatia]]
 
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| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
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| [[Recognition (Cyprus)|Cyprus]]
 
| [[Recognition (Cyprus)|Cyprus]]
 
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| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
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| [[Recognition (Denmark)|Denmark]]
 
| [[Recognition (Denmark)|Denmark]]
 
| style="background-color:#9ff;" |  Denmark allows people to get passports with the gender marker X.<ref>"Denmark: X in Passports and New Trans Law Works." Transgender Europe. September 12, 2014. http://tgeu.org/denmark-x-in-passports-and-new-trans-law-work/</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#9ff;" |  Denmark allows people to get passports with the gender marker X.<ref>"Denmark: X in Passports and New Trans Law Works." Transgender Europe. September 12, 2014. http://tgeu.org/denmark-x-in-passports-and-new-trans-law-work/</ref>
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Since 2014, no longer requires sterilization, gender identity disorder diagnosis, or ending a marriage in order to change legal sex.<ref>"Denmark becomes Europe’s leading country on legal gender recognition | The European Parliament Intergroup on LGBTI Rights" . Lgbt-ep.eu. 2014-06-12. Retrieved 2015-04-10. http://www.lgbt-ep.eu/press-releases/denmark-becomes-europes-leading-country-on-legal-gender-recognition/</ref> Requires applicants to be over 18, and to wait six months after applying before legal sex change takes effect.<ref>World must follow Denmark's example after landmark transgender law http://www.amnesty.org/en/en/news/denmark-transgender-law-2014-06-12</ref>
+
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Since 2014, no longer requires sterilization, gender identity disorder diagnosis, or ending a marriage in order to change legal sex.<ref>"Denmark becomes Europe’s leading country on legal gender recognition | The European Parliament Intergroup on LGBTI Rights" . Lgbt-ep.eu. 2014-06-12. Retrieved 2015-04-10. http://www.lgbt-ep.eu/press-releases/denmark-becomes-europes-leading-country-on-legal-gender-recognition/</ref> Requires applicants to be over 18, and to wait six months after applying before legal sex change takes effect.<ref>"World must follow Denmark's example after landmark transgender law." ''Amnesty International.'' Retrieved July 4, 2014. https://web.archive.org/web/20140704235720/http://amnesty.org/en/en/news/denmark-transgender-law-2014-06-12</ref>
|
+
| style="background-color:#9ff;" | Danish law includes protections against discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity/expression.<ref>[http://old.ilga.org/Statehomophobia/ILGA_State_Sponsored_Homophobia_2013.pdfState-sponsored Homophobia A world survey of laws criminalising same-sex sexual acts between consenting adults]</ref><ref>[http://www.non-discrimination.net/content/main-legislation-17 Main legislation]</ref> Danish law includes hate crimes legislation, which adds extra penalties for crimes committed against people because of their sexuality and for their gender identity or form of gender expression.<ref>State-sponsored Homophobia A world survey of laws criminalising same-sex sexual acts between consenting adults http://old.ilga.org/Statehomophobia/ILGA_State_Sponsored_Homophobia_2013.pdf</ref>
| Danish law includes protections against discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity/expression.<ref>[http://old.ilga.org/Statehomophobia/ILGA_State_Sponsored_Homophobia_2013.pdfState-sponsored Homophobia A world survey of laws criminalising same-sex sexual acts between consenting adults]</ref><ref>[http://www.non-discrimination.net/content/main-legislation-17 Main legislation]</ref> Danish law includes hate crimes legislation, which adds extra penalties for crimes committed against people because of their sexuality and for their gender identity or form of gender expression.<ref>State-sponsored Homophobia A world survey of laws criminalising same-sex sexual acts between consenting adults http://old.ilga.org/Statehomophobia/ILGA_State_Sponsored_Homophobia_2013.pdf</ref>
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (Estonia)|Estonia]]
 
| [[Recognition (Estonia)|Estonia]]
 
|
 
|
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
|
 
 
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|-
 
|-
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|
 
|
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (France)|France]]
 
| [[Recognition (France)|France]]
| style="background-color:#f99;" | M or F only.
+
| style="background-color:#f99;" | M or F only. In 2015, for the first time, France allowed an intersex adult to change their birth certificate to "gender neutral".<ref>Joseph Patrick McCormick. "France legally recognises person as ‘gender neutral’ for the first time." Pink News. October 15, 2015. [1]</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" /> Doesn't require a note from a doctor or medical intervention, but does not use self-certification alone <ref>http://tgeu.org/france-adopts-1st-gender-recognition-law-trans-people-continue-being-judged/</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" /> Doesn't require a note from a doctor or medical intervention, but does not use self-certification alone <ref>http://tgeu.org/france-adopts-1st-gender-recognition-law-trans-people-continue-being-judged/</ref>
|
+
|   
In 2015, for the first time, France allowed an intersex adult to change their birth certificate to "gender neutral".<ref>Joseph Patrick McCormick. "France legally recognises person as ‘gender neutral’ for the first time." Pink News. October 15, 2015. [1]</ref>
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (Georgia) (country)|Georgia (country)]]
 
| [[Recognition (Georgia) (country)|Georgia (country)]]
 
|
 
|
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (Germany)|Germany]]
 
| [[Recognition (Germany)|Germany]]
| style="background-color:#F9F;" | Germany requires newborns with "ambiguous" genitals to have birth certificates without a gender marker; this can be changed to female or male later in life, if the person wishes it. Activists fear this will lead to even more pressure for nonconsensual surgery on intersex babies as parents are afraid of this stigmatizing non-marker.<ref>"German proposals for a “third gender” on birth certificates miss the mark". OII Australia. [2]</ref> <br>More recently, Germany has decided to allow nonbinary and intersex people proper recognition. It will allow birth certificates with an explicit nonbinary gender marker by the end of 2018<ref>https://www.ilga-europe.org/resources/news/latest-news/german-constitutional-court-nov2017</ref> <ref>Friederike Heine, "M, F or Blank: 'Third Gender' Official in Germany from November." August 16, 2013. Spiegel Online International (news). http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/third-gender-option-to-become-available-on-german-birth-certificates-a-916940.html</ref> German passports can have an M, F or X mark. <ref>Das noch nicht definierte Geschlecht: Eine (stille) Revolution – nicht nur im Personenstandswesen! https://www.rehm-verlag.de/__STATIC__/newsletter/pass-ausweis-melderecht/2013/self/nl-passausweismelderecht_-okt2013.pdf</ref>
+
| style="background-color:#ffb;" | Since December 2018, German citizens can apply for a third gender marker as long as they provide a note from their doctor. Although the law was initially passed for intersex people, some non-intersex non-binary people have managed to get a third gender marker too by getting a note from a trusted doctor. <ref>"Ratgeber für inter- und transgeschlechtliche Menschen", LSVD. https://www.lsvd.de/recht/ratgeber/intersexuelle/ratgeber-fuer-inter-und-transgeschlechtliche-menschen.html</ref>
 
 
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  In 2011, Germany stopped requiring transgender people to be coercively [[Sterilization|sterilized]] in order to transition.<ref>"German Federal Court Outlawing Forced Sterilisation (2011)." Transgender Europe. January 7, 2015. http://tgeu.org/german-federal-court-verdict-on-forced-sterilisation-2011/</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  In 2011, Germany stopped requiring transgender people to be coercively [[Sterilization|sterilized]] in order to transition.<ref>"German Federal Court Outlawing Forced Sterilisation (2011)." Transgender Europe. January 7, 2015. http://tgeu.org/german-federal-court-verdict-on-forced-sterilisation-2011/</ref>
| style="background-color:#F9F;" | The coalition agreement for the current federal government provides for legislation clarifying that surgery on intersex children is only allowed in cases that are urgent and involve a lethal health threat. <ref>Coalition agreement (see lines 782-784) https://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/_Anlagen/2018/03/2018-03-14-koalitionsvertrag.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=5</ref>
+
| style="background-color:#F99;" | The coalition agreement for the current federal government provides for legislation clarifying that surgery on intersex children is only allowed in cases that are urgent and involve a lethal health threat. <ref>Coalition agreement (see lines 782-784) https://www.bundesregierung.de/Content/DE/_Anlagen/2018/03/2018-03-14-koalitionsvertrag.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=5</ref> Some nonbinary people have legally adopted neutral names, arguing the TSG ("law on transsexuals") does not apply to them.<ref>"Namensänderung ohne Transsexuellengesetz". nibiTrans*Ich (blog).[3]</ref>
Some nonbinary people have legally adopted neutral names, arguing the TSG ("law on transsexuals") does not apply to them.<ref>"Namensänderung ohne Transsexuellengesetz". nibiTrans*Ich (blog).[3]</ref>
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (Greece)|Greece]]
 
| [[Recognition (Greece)|Greece]]
 
|
 
|
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Greece allows transgender people to change their gender markers if their [[gender expression]] matches their [[gender identity]].<ref>https://www.ilga-europe.org/resources/news/latest-news/greece-gender-recognition-law-oct2017</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Greece allows transgender people to change their gender markers if their [[gender expression]] matches their [[gender identity]].<ref>https://www.ilga-europe.org/resources/news/latest-news/greece-gender-recognition-law-oct2017</ref>
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (India)|India]]
 
| [[Recognition (India)|India]]
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  India allows passports to use the gender marker "T", meaning transgender,<ref>Mitch Kellaway. "Trans Indian's Predicament at Border Shows the U.S. Lags Behind." May 9, 2015. Advocate. http://www.advocate.com/politics/transgender/2015/05/09/trans-indian-womans-predicament-border-shows-us-lags-behind</ref> as well as "E" (eunuch).<ref>Tristin Hopper, "Genderless passports ‘under review’ in Canada." May 8, 2012. National Post. http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/genderless-passports-under-review-in-canada</ref>
+
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  India recognises transgender people as a third gender. Additionally, [[hijra]]s are also recognised as a third gender.<ref>"Supreme Court’s Third Gender Status to Transgenders is a landmark" http://news.biharprabha.com/2014/04/supreme-courts-third-gender-status-to-transgenders-is-a-landmark/</ref>
|
 
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
Line 187: Line 158:
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  M or F only.
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  M or F only.
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  In 2015, Ireland passed a law allowing transgender adults to legally transition to either female or male only, without a requirement of medical intervention. Intersex and nonbinary people and minors are still left out.<ref>http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/16/ireland-transgender-law-gender-recognition-bill-passed</ref> Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  In 2015, Ireland passed a law allowing transgender adults to legally transition to either female or male only, without a requirement of medical intervention. Intersex and nonbinary people and minors are still left out.<ref>http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/jul/16/ireland-transgender-law-gender-recognition-bill-passed</ref> Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
|
 
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
Line 194: Line 163:
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  M or F only.
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  M or F only.
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
|
+
| style="background-color:#ffb;" | In June 2019, the Icelandic Parliament voted unanimously on a bill to implement a "self-determination gender change model law", including an "X" marker on identity documents. It is expected to be implemented on 1 January 2020.<ref>"Gender Autonomy Act Applauded", mbl.is. https://icelandmonitor.mbl.is/news/politics_and_society/2019/06/21/gender_autonomy_act_applauded/</ref>
|
 
|
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (Italy)|Italy]]
 
| [[Recognition (Italy)|Italy]]
 
|
 
|
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
Line 207: Line 173:
 
|
 
|
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Japan made legal transition possible in 2004. In order to get one, Japan requires that a transgender person must be unmarried, has never had children, has had genital surgery, and has been sterilized.<ref>http://www.impowr.org/content/current-legal-framework-transgender-issues-japan</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Japan made legal transition possible in 2004. In order to get one, Japan requires that a transgender person must be unmarried, has never had children, has had genital surgery, and has been sterilized.<ref>http://www.impowr.org/content/current-legal-framework-transgender-issues-japan</ref>
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (Kenya)|Kenya]]
 
| [[Recognition (Kenya)|Kenya]]
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  In 2015, activists in Kenya are still working for the introduction of another gender option on official forms for people who don't identify as female or male, who may be intersex or transgender.<ref>Lydia Matata, "Identifying as Neither Male Nor Female, Some Kenyans Seek a Third Option on Official Documents." December 1, 2015. Global Press Journal. http://globalpressjournal.com/africa/kenya/identifying-as-neither-male-nor-female-some-kenyans-seek-a-third-option-on-official-documents/#</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  In 2015, activists in Kenya are still working for the introduction of another gender option on official forms for people who don't identify as female or male, who may be intersex or transgender.<ref>Lydia Matata, "Identifying as Neither Male Nor Female, Some Kenyans Seek a Third Option on Official Documents." December 1, 2015. Global Press Journal. http://globalpressjournal.com/africa/kenya/identifying-as-neither-male-nor-female-some-kenyans-seek-a-third-option-on-official-documents/#</ref>
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
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|
 
|
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
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|
 
|
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
Line 231: Line 193:
 
|
 
|
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Malaysia has no legislation for changing a legal sex, and instead deals with this on a case-by-case basis.
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Malaysia has no legislation for changing a legal sex, and instead deals with this on a case-by-case basis.
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (Malta)|Malta]]
 
| [[Recognition (Malta)|Malta]]
| style="background-color:#f99;" | In 2015, Malta is actively working toward allowing passports of transgender and intersex people to use an "X" gender marker, but this hasn't been resolved yet.<ref>Aron Macarow. "These Seven Countries are Way Ahead of the US on Trans Issues." February 9, 2015. Attn. http://www.attn.com/stories/868/transgender-passport-status</ref>
+
| style="background-color:#9ff;" | Since September 2017, Malta can issue official identity documents with X as a gender marker. On January 2018, Malta released the first passport with an 'X' as a gender marker.<ref name="maltatoday">"Malta releases first passport with neutral 'X' gender marker" https://www.maltatoday.com.mt/news/national/83920/malta_releases_first_passport_with_neutral_x_gender_marker</ref>
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
+
| style="background-color:#9ff;" |  The only requeriment for a neutral gender marker is an oath in front of a notary.<ref name="maltatoday" />
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
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|
 
|
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (Nepal)|Nepal]]
 
| [[Recognition (Nepal)|Nepal]]
| style="background-color:#9ff;" |  Allows passports to use an "X" gender marker.<ref>Clarissa-Jan Lim. "New "Third Gender" Option on Nepal Passports Finally Protects the Rights of LGBT Community." Bustle. January 8, 2015. http://www.bustle.com/articles/57466-new-third-gender-option-on-nepal-passports-finally-protects-the-rights-of-lgbt-community</ref>
+
| style="background-color:#9ff;" |  Allows passports to use a third gender marker, called "other", which includes all transgender and nonbinary people.<ref>Clarissa-Jan Lim. "New "Third Gender" Option on Nepal Passports Finally Protects the Rights of LGBT Community." Bustle. January 8, 2015. http://www.bustle.com/articles/57466-new-third-gender-option-on-nepal-passports-finally-protects-the-rights-of-lgbt-community</ref>
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
Line 254: Line 212:
 
| [[Recognition (Netherlands)|Netherlands]]
 
| [[Recognition (Netherlands)|Netherlands]]
 
|
 
|
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
+
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized or any kind of therapy in order to have legal gender recognition, but it requires a diagnosis.<ref name="tre_map" />
|
+
|In 2018 Leonne Zeegers received a passport with gender marker X [https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-45914813]. They are the first adult Dutch citizen to get that. Leonne does have an intersex condition but the judge ruled in their favor based on their gender: which is non-binary. In October 2019, Nanoah Struik will be the second adult citizen to get an X on their passport [https://www.transgendernetwerk.nl/tweede-volwassene-krijgt-x-in-paspoort/]. Nanoah doesn't have an intersex condition so this makes them the first person to have that gender marker without having an interex condition.
|
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (New Zealand)|New Zealand]]
 
| [[Recognition (New Zealand)|New Zealand]]
 
| style="background-color:#9ff;" |  Allows passports to use a nonbinary gender option, X.<ref>Clarissa-Jan Lim. "New "Third Gender" Option on Nepal Passports Finally Protects the Rights of LGBT Community." Bustle. January 8, 2015. http://www.bustle.com/articles/57466-new-third-gender-option-on-nepal-passports-finally-protects-the-rights-of-lgbt-community</ref> You can change it simply by applying for it.<ref>http://www.wclc.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/How-to-change-your-name-and-gender-under-New-Zealand-law.pdf</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#9ff;" |  Allows passports to use a nonbinary gender option, X.<ref>Clarissa-Jan Lim. "New "Third Gender" Option on Nepal Passports Finally Protects the Rights of LGBT Community." Bustle. January 8, 2015. http://www.bustle.com/articles/57466-new-third-gender-option-on-nepal-passports-finally-protects-the-rights-of-lgbt-community</ref> You can change it simply by applying for it.<ref>http://www.wclc.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/How-to-change-your-name-and-gender-under-New-Zealand-law.pdf</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#9ff;" |  Since 1995, in order to change the gender on your birth certificate, you need to show that you wish to live in your intended gender, and that you have undergone "medical treatment" for it.<ref>http://www.wclc.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/How-to-change-your-name-and-gender-under-New-Zealand-law.pdf</ref> You can change your driver's license simply by applying for it.<ref>http://www.wclc.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/How-to-change-your-name-and-gender-under-New-Zealand-law.pdf</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#9ff;" |  Since 1995, in order to change the gender on your birth certificate, you need to show that you wish to live in your intended gender, and that you have undergone "medical treatment" for it.<ref>http://www.wclc.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/How-to-change-your-name-and-gender-under-New-Zealand-law.pdf</ref> You can change your driver's license simply by applying for it.<ref>http://www.wclc.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/How-to-change-your-name-and-gender-under-New-Zealand-law.pdf</ref>
|
 
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" | New Zealand allows asylum seekers or refugees who face harm on the basis of "gender" and "identity"<ref>https://www.immigration.govt.nz/audiences/supporting-refugees-and-asylum-seekers/asylum-seekers</ref>. However, in its refugee confirmation form<ref>https://www.immigration.govt.nz/documents/forms-and-guides/inz1071.pdf</ref>, it only allows binary options.
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" | New Zealand allows asylum seekers or refugees who face harm on the basis of "gender" and "identity"<ref>https://www.immigration.govt.nz/audiences/supporting-refugees-and-asylum-seekers/asylum-seekers</ref>. However, in its refugee confirmation form<ref>https://www.immigration.govt.nz/documents/forms-and-guides/inz1071.pdf</ref>, it only allows binary options.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (Norway)|Norway]]
 
| [[Recognition (Norway)|Norway]]
 
|
 
|
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
+
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  People over 16 can change their legal gender without any kind of diagnosis or treatment. Minors between 6 and 16 years old need their parents' permission.<ref>[https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/easier-to-change-legal-gender/id2480677/ Easier to change legal gender], Norwegian Government (2016)</ref>
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (Pakistan)|Pakistan]]
 
| [[Recognition (Pakistan)|Pakistan]]
| style="background-color:#ffb;" | Pakistan legally recognises [[Hijra|hijras]] and [[Eunuch|eunuchs]]. <ref>https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/for-transgender-pakistanis-newfound-rights/2012/02/04/gIQAM0jG4Q_story.html?utm_term=.584326826f45</ref>
+
| style="background-color:#ffb;" | Pakistan legally recognises [[Hijra|hijras]] and [[Eunuch|eunuchs]], even though transgender topics are generally taboo. <ref>https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/for-transgender-pakistanis-newfound-rights/2012/02/04/gIQAM0jG4Q_story.html?utm_term=.584326826f45</ref>
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
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|
 
|
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  This country doesn't allow transgender people to change their legal sex, but made an exception for an intersex person.
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  This country doesn't allow transgender people to change their legal sex, but made an exception for an intersex person.
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (Poland)|Poland]]
 
| [[Recognition (Poland)|Poland]]
 
|
 
|
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
+
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Transgender people must undergo [[sex reassignment surgery]] before changing their legal gender.<ref name="tre_map" />
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (Portugal)|Portugal]]
 
| [[Recognition (Portugal)|Portugal]]
 
|
 
|
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
+
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Transgender people can change their legal gender without any requeriments. Minors who are 16 or 17 years old need their parents's permission and a favorable opinion from a psychologist.<ref name="tre_map" />
|
 
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (Romania)|Romania]]
 
| [[Recognition (Romania)|Romania]]
 
|
 
|
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" /> Genital surgery is required in order to change legal sex.<ref> "Transsexualismul in Romania" . Accept Romania. Retrieved 11 July 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170711092809/http://accept-romania.ro/lgbt-issues/trans/</ref>  Allowed to marry in accordance with new legal sex.
+
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to undergo sex reassignment surgery in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" /> Genital surgery is required in order to change legal sex.<ref> "Transsexualismul in Romania" . Accept Romania. Retrieved 11 July 2017. https://web.archive.org/web/20170711092809/http://accept-romania.ro/lgbt-issues/trans/</ref>  Allowed to marry in accordance with new legal sex.
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| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
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| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
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| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
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| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
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| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Since 2003, legal gender can be changed after medical treatment. Hormone therapy is seen as enough, surgery isn't required.<ref>"Changing your name and gender in your identity document: the Alteration of Sex Description Act 49 of 2003" (PDF). Gender Dynamix. Retrieved 29 September 2013. http://www.genderdynamix.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Act-49-English.pdf</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Since 2003, legal gender can be changed after medical treatment. Hormone therapy is seen as enough, surgery isn't required.<ref>"Changing your name and gender in your identity document: the Alteration of Sex Description Act 49 of 2003" (PDF). Gender Dynamix. Retrieved 29 September 2013. http://www.genderdynamix.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Act-49-English.pdf</ref>
|
 
 
|  Anti-discrimination laws are interpreted to include gender identity.
 
|  Anti-discrimination laws are interpreted to include gender identity.
 
|-
 
|-
 
| [[Recognition (South Korea)|South Korea]]
 
| [[Recognition (South Korea)|South Korea]]
 
|
 
|
| style="background-color:#ffb;" | In 2013 a court ruled that transsexuals can change their legal sex without undergoing genital surgery.<ref>Template:Cite news</ref>
+
| style="background-color:#ffb;" | While the Supreme Court declared that transgender people need to undergo SRS in order to change their legal gender, in 2013 a court ruled that five transgender people could make the change without a surgery, and the same happened in 2017.<ref>[http://english.hani.co.kr/arti/english_edition/e_national/578323.html Landmark legal ruling for South Korean transgenders], Hankyoreh (2013)</ref>
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|
 
|
 
|-
 
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| [[Recognition (Spain)|Spain]]
 
| [[Recognition (Spain)|Spain]]
 
|
 
|
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
+
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  All transgender people may change their legal gender without a surgery, including minors.<ref>[https://chrysallis.org.es/excluir-a-menores-trans-es-inconstitucional/ Excluir a menores trans es inconstitucional], Chrysalis (2019, in Spanish)</ref>
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| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  In 2012, Sweden stopped requiring transgender people to be coercively sterilized in order to transition,<ref>"Swedish Verdict outlawing forced Sterilisation (2012)." Transgender Europe. http://tgeu.org/administrative-court-of-appeal-in-stockholm-on-sterilisation-requirement-in-gender-recognition-legislation-19-dec-2012/</ref> and in 2014, stopped requiring a mental health diagnosis in order to get legal gender recognition.<ref>"Swedish Court outlaws diagnosis requirement." September 7, 2014. Transgender Europe. http://tgeu.org/administrative-court-in-stockholm-striking-out-diagnosis-in-gender-recognition-16-05-2014/</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  In 2012, Sweden stopped requiring transgender people to be coercively sterilized in order to transition,<ref>"Swedish Verdict outlawing forced Sterilisation (2012)." Transgender Europe. http://tgeu.org/administrative-court-of-appeal-in-stockholm-on-sterilisation-requirement-in-gender-recognition-legislation-19-dec-2012/</ref> and in 2014, stopped requiring a mental health diagnosis in order to get legal gender recognition.<ref>"Swedish Court outlaws diagnosis requirement." September 7, 2014. Transgender Europe. http://tgeu.org/administrative-court-in-stockholm-striking-out-diagnosis-in-gender-recognition-16-05-2014/</ref>
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| [[Recognition (Switzerland)|Switzerland]]
 
| [[Recognition (Switzerland)|Switzerland]]
 
|
 
|
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
+
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" /> However, a process to allow a legal gender changes without medical intervention in under public consultation.<ref>[https://www.admin.ch/gov/en/start/documentation/media-releases.msg-id-70852.html Transgender individuals should be able to change their official gender and first name without red tape], Swiss Government (2018)</ref> A proposal to add a third "X" gender marker is also under discussion.<ref>[https://360.ch/suisse/45258-le-debat-sur-le-3e-sexe-est-lance/ Le débat sur le 3e sexe est lancé], 360º (2018, in French)</ref>
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| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.<ref name="tre_map" />
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| [[Recognition (UK)|United Kingdom]]
+
| [[Recognition (UK)|United Kingdom (UK)]]
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  As of 2015, some politicians are working to introduce passports with an option for an X gender marker.<ref>"Gender neutral passports move a step closer to reality after Labour backing." http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/gender-neutral-passports-move-a-step-closer-to-reality-after-labour-backing-10123734.html</ref> In 2015, the Ministry of Justice refused to allow a nonbinary legal gender.<ref>https://petition.parliament.uk/petitions/104639</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  As of 2015, some politicians are working to introduce passports with an option for an X gender marker.<ref>"Gender neutral passports move a step closer to reality after Labour backing." http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/gender-neutral-passports-move-a-step-closer-to-reality-after-labour-backing-10123734.html</ref> In 2015, the Ministry of Justice refused to allow a nonbinary legal gender.<ref>https://petition.parliament.uk/petitions/104639</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  In order to legally transition, you're first required to have a diagnosis of [[gender dysphoria]], and to have lived as your gender for two years, but you're not required to have had surgery.<ref>https://www.gov.uk/apply-gender-recognition-certificate/changing-your-gender</ref>
 
| style="background-color:#ffb;" |  In order to legally transition, you're first required to have a diagnosis of [[gender dysphoria]], and to have lived as your gender for two years, but you're not required to have had surgery.<ref>https://www.gov.uk/apply-gender-recognition-certificate/changing-your-gender</ref>
| style="background-color:#f99;" | In 2015, the Ministry of Justice stated that, unlike binary trans people, nonbinary people aren't protected under equality law.<ref>https://petition.parliament.uk/petitions/104639</ref><ref>http://beyondthebinary.co.uk/specificdetriment-what-you-told-us/</ref>
+
| style="background-color:#f99;" | In 2015, the Ministry of Justice stated that, unlike binary trans people, nonbinary people aren't protected under equality law.<ref>https://petition.parliament.uk/petitions/104639</ref><ref>http://beyondthebinary.co.uk/specificdetriment-what-you-told-us/</ref> In the UK, most kinds of paperwork and ID show a person's title, which is the main place where gender shows on those documents. Recognition of the [[Gender neutral titles|gender-neutral title]] "[[Mx]]" is coming to be widespread.
| style="background-color:#9ff;" | In the UK, most kinds of paperwork and ID show a person's title, which is the main place where gender shows on those documents. Recognition of the [[Gender neutral titles|gender-neutral title]] "[[Mx]]" is coming to be widespread.
 
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Recognition (USA)|United States of America]]
+
| [[Recognition (USA)|United States of America (USA)]]
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  All US official identity documents (passports, birth certificates, driver's licenses, and so on) that record gender (called "sex" in those documents) require people to be called either female or male, with no nonbinary options. This makes problems not only for people who have always lived in the country. The US State Department has no process for dealing with people who have nonbinary passports from other countries.<ref>Jenny Kutner. "U.S. State Department has no process for accepting transgender passports." May 7, 2015. Salon. http://www.salon.com/2015/05/07/u_s_state_department_has_no_process_for_accepting_transgender_passports/</ref> In 2016, Jamie Shupe of Oregon became the first person in the USA whose legal sex is "non-binary,"<ref>Casey Parks, "Oregon court allows person to change sex from 'female' to 'non-binary'." June 10, 2016. The Oregonian (news). http://www.oregonlive.com/portland/index.ssf/2016/06/oregon_court_allows_person_to.html</ref> and uses identity documents that typically don't display sex (military retiree and social security cards), but the DMV doesn't yet allow nonbinary driver's licenses.<ref>Bob Heye, "Oregon DMV says they can't issue driver's license for non-binary individual." Katu News. http://local21news.com/news/local/oregon-dmv-says-they-cant-issue-drivers-license-for-non-binary-individual</ref>
+
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  While some states allow a third gender marked on official documents such as birth certificates or driving license, the federal government does not recognise any gender designation other than male or female.
| style="background-color:#F61;" |  Each state has different laws regarding legal transition. Most states require proof of surgery in order to legally transition, and the rest require a letter from a doctor saying you've had some kind of transition.
+
| style="background-color:#f99;" |  Each state has different laws regarding legal transition. Most states require proof of surgery in order to legally transition, and the rest require a letter from a doctor saying you've had some kind of transition.
| style="background-color:#f99;" | The U.S. Department of State made multiple public statements of hatred against nonbinary Americans. <ref>https://travel.state.gov/content/passports/en/passports/information/gender.html</ref>
+
| style="background-color:#f99;" | In the USA, documents and ID rarely show a person's title.
In the USA, documents and ID rarely show a person's title.
 
 
|-
 
|-
 
|[[Recognition (Vietnam)|Vietnam]]
 
|[[Recognition (Vietnam)|Vietnam]]
 
|
 
|
| style="background-color:#f77;" | Forces transgender people to go through surgery in order to transition. Before late 2015, transgender people could not change their gender markers.<ref>https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/24/vietnam-law-change-introduces-transgender-rights</ref>
+
| style="background-color:#f99;" | Forces transgender people to go through surgery in order to transition. Before late 2015, transgender people could not change their gender markers.<ref>https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/24/vietnam-law-change-introduces-transgender-rights</ref>
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* [[Practical resources]]
 
* [[Practical resources]]
 
* [[Charities and groups that benefit gender variant people]]
 
* [[Charities and groups that benefit gender variant people]]
* [[Attitudes towards Nonbinary People]]
+
* [[Attitudes towards nonbinary people by country]]
  
 
== External links ==
 
== External links ==
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== References ==
 
== References ==
 
<references />
 
<references />
 +
 +
[[Category:Recognition]]

Latest revision as of 15:18, 19 October 2019

Map of recognition of nonbinary gender. (Graphic may not be as up to date as the rest of this article.)
* Dark blue: Non-binary / third gender option available as voluntary opt-in * Yellow: Opt-in for intersex people only * Orange: Mandatory for some born intersex, and opt in * Red: Mandatory for some born intersex * Grey: Nonbinary / third gender option not legally recognized / no data

Recognition of non-binary gender identities in law and other paperwork is an important issue confronting modern society. This also deals with policies about transgender people in general and related policies about intersex people. Recognition here means whether an organization acknowledges that such people exist and have valid identities, and the organization does this by routinely giving them a place where they aren't forced into being wrongly categorized as a gender that doesn't match their gender identity. In the case of recognition of nonbinary people, this means the system doesn't force them to wrongly say they are one of the binary genders (female or male). Through networking and activism, people can find out which organisations acknowledge non-binary genders, and can ask for acknowledgement from organisations that still need to do so.

For international recognition on the Internet, see websites and social networks.

Recognition worldwide[edit | edit source]

One international problem is that all passports and other identity documents list gender (they are usually called "sex"),[1] and most countries require that gender to be either female or male.[2] A few countries allow passports to have a nonbinary gender marker, called X (unspecified or X-gender), T (transgender or third gender), E (eunuch), I (intersex) or O (other), depending on the country. Having a nonbinary marker on one's passport can make it impossible to travel to a country whose passports don't give that option.[3]

Another global problem for transgender rights is that many countries require too much of a transgender person in order to allow them to have a legal transition. Many countries require proof of surgery in order to do this. Many countries even require transgender people to go through bottom surgeries that would effectively sterilize them in order to transition. International law calls compulsory sterilization a crime against humanity,[4][5] but it is still the law in many countries.

In the table below, countries are listed in alphabetical order. To make them easier to skim, they use a colour code based on traffic lights:

  • Blue (#9FF) means it's friendly to nonbinary people. This can mean it allows unspecified gender options.
  • Yellow (#FFB) means it's somewhat friendly to nonbinary people. This can mean it plans to become friendly to nonbinary people. Or it can mean the country is divided on giving nonbinary people their rights, but leaning toward acceptance.
  • Red (#F99) means it's not friendly at all to nonbinary people.
  • White or blank background means we don't have information about this yet, or it's difficult to call whether it's more good or bad for nonbinary people.


Country Nonbinary markers allowed on passports or other identity documents? Legal gender change requirements Other notes on transgender, nonbinary, and intersex rights, recognition, and government views
Australia Starting in 2000, Australia allows nonbinary and intersex people to get passports with the nonbinary gender marker "X (indeterminate/unspecified/intersex)," requiring only a letter from a doctor, not proof of surgery.[6] Can change birth certificate to "sex: not specified."[7][8][9] Can change birth certificate, including to a nonbinary option, "sex: not specified," if the person has had a "sex affirmation procedure".[10] However, people have to be unmarried at the time of the change.[11]
Austria The first passport with an "X" as a gender marker was issued on May 14, 2019 to the intersex activist Alex Jürgen, thanks to the country's constitutional court, who ruled that citizens have the right to have their gender identity accurately represented in their official documents.[12] Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13] As for the civil registry, the term "divers" can be used as long as the person can provide a document certifying their intersexuality.[12] It is possible to change to an ambiguous name. However, there are high fees for a name change unless one can prove to have a reason that is approved by the state. A name that doesn't correspond to the legal gender can also be chosen, but only as a second or third name - the name that is listed first has to correspond to the legal gender or be ambiguous.[14]
Argentina Identity documents can be issued without a gender marker at all thanks to the Gender Identity Law, passed in 2012. In November 2018, two nonbinary people were able to make this change without a judicial procedure for the first time.[15] Argentina allows transgender people to get access to legal and medical resources they need to transition, without requiring these things in order to be legally recognized as their gender. They can change their legal gender based on their written declaration, without even a diagnosis.[16] See Argentina's Gender Identity Law as of 2012 here. While this law is said to be the most progressive transgender law in the world,[17] it doesn't directly mention intersex or nonbinary people.
Armenia Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Azerbaijan Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Bangladesh In 2011, started to allow passports to show a gender called "other".[18][19]
Belarus Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Belgium Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[20] The government publishes vacancy notes with the mention "M/F/X".[21] Anti-discrimination legislation covers gender identity and expression. [22]
Bolivia Since August 2016, transgender people in Bolivia can change their legal gender as long as they are over 18 years old, pass a psychological test and write a letter of application.[23]
Bosnia and Herzegovina Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Bulgaria Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Cambodia Some Cambodian families abuse, burn, or torture transgender children. They are sometimes believed to be possessed.[24]
Canada As of June 2019, Canada allows for "X" in the sex field of immigration documents including passports and proof of citizenship certificates [25]. Some provinces allow-- or plan to soon allow-- hidden or "X" markers on identity documents such as birth certificates and driver's licenses; see Recognition (Canada) for the latest details on which. Requirements vary from province to province. Generally minimally medical intervention is required. Explicit anti-discrimination protections for transgender people only in Alberta, Northwest Territories, Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Ontario, implicit elsewhere.
Colombia Since 2015, transgender persons can change their legal gender and name manifesting their solemn will before a notar, no surgeries or judicial order required.[26]
Croatia Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Cyprus
Czech Republic Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Denmark Denmark allows people to get passports with the gender marker X.[27] Since 2014, no longer requires sterilization, gender identity disorder diagnosis, or ending a marriage in order to change legal sex.[28] Requires applicants to be over 18, and to wait six months after applying before legal sex change takes effect.[29] Danish law includes protections against discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity/expression.[30][31] Danish law includes hate crimes legislation, which adds extra penalties for crimes committed against people because of their sexuality and for their gender identity or form of gender expression.[32]
Estonia Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Finland Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
France M or F only. In 2015, for the first time, France allowed an intersex adult to change their birth certificate to "gender neutral".[33] Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13] Doesn't require a note from a doctor or medical intervention, but does not use self-certification alone [34]
Georgia (country) Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Germany Since December 2018, German citizens can apply for a third gender marker as long as they provide a note from their doctor. Although the law was initially passed for intersex people, some non-intersex non-binary people have managed to get a third gender marker too by getting a note from a trusted doctor. [35] In 2011, Germany stopped requiring transgender people to be coercively sterilized in order to transition.[36] The coalition agreement for the current federal government provides for legislation clarifying that surgery on intersex children is only allowed in cases that are urgent and involve a lethal health threat. [37] Some nonbinary people have legally adopted neutral names, arguing the TSG ("law on transsexuals") does not apply to them.[38]
Greece Greece allows transgender people to change their gender markers if their gender expression matches their gender identity.[39]
India India recognises transgender people as a third gender. Additionally, hijras are also recognised as a third gender.[40]
Ireland M or F only. In 2015, Ireland passed a law allowing transgender adults to legally transition to either female or male only, without a requirement of medical intervention. Intersex and nonbinary people and minors are still left out.[41] Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Iceland M or F only. Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13] In June 2019, the Icelandic Parliament voted unanimously on a bill to implement a "self-determination gender change model law", including an "X" marker on identity documents. It is expected to be implemented on 1 January 2020.[42]
Italy Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Japan Japan made legal transition possible in 2004. In order to get one, Japan requires that a transgender person must be unmarried, has never had children, has had genital surgery, and has been sterilized.[43]
Kenya In 2015, activists in Kenya are still working for the introduction of another gender option on official forms for people who don't identify as female or male, who may be intersex or transgender.[44]
Latvia Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Lithuania Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Malaysia Malaysia has no legislation for changing a legal sex, and instead deals with this on a case-by-case basis.
Malta Since September 2017, Malta can issue official identity documents with X as a gender marker. On January 2018, Malta released the first passport with an 'X' as a gender marker.[45] The only requeriment for a neutral gender marker is an oath in front of a notary.[45]
Montenegro Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Nepal Allows passports to use a third gender marker, called "other", which includes all transgender and nonbinary people.[46]
Netherlands Doesn't require transgender people to be sterilized or any kind of therapy in order to have legal gender recognition, but it requires a diagnosis.[13] In 2018 Leonne Zeegers received a passport with gender marker X [1]. They are the first adult Dutch citizen to get that. Leonne does have an intersex condition but the judge ruled in their favor based on their gender: which is non-binary. In October 2019, Nanoah Struik will be the second adult citizen to get an X on their passport [2]. Nanoah doesn't have an intersex condition so this makes them the first person to have that gender marker without having an interex condition.
New Zealand Allows passports to use a nonbinary gender option, X.[47] You can change it simply by applying for it.[48] Since 1995, in order to change the gender on your birth certificate, you need to show that you wish to live in your intended gender, and that you have undergone "medical treatment" for it.[49] You can change your driver's license simply by applying for it.[50] New Zealand allows asylum seekers or refugees who face harm on the basis of "gender" and "identity"[51]. However, in its refugee confirmation form[52], it only allows binary options.
Norway People over 16 can change their legal gender without any kind of diagnosis or treatment. Minors between 6 and 16 years old need their parents' permission.[53]
Pakistan Pakistan legally recognises hijras and eunuchs, even though transgender topics are generally taboo. [54]
Philippines This country doesn't allow transgender people to change their legal sex, but made an exception for an intersex person.
Poland Transgender people must undergo sex reassignment surgery before changing their legal gender.[13]
Portugal Transgender people can change their legal gender without any requeriments. Minors who are 16 or 17 years old need their parents's permission and a favorable opinion from a psychologist.[13]
Romania Requires transgender people to undergo sex reassignment surgery in order to have legal gender recognition.[13] Genital surgery is required in order to change legal sex.[55] Allowed to marry in accordance with new legal sex.
Russia Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Serbia Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Slovakia Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
Slovenia Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
South Africa Since 2003, legal gender can be changed after medical treatment. Hormone therapy is seen as enough, surgery isn't required.[56] Anti-discrimination laws are interpreted to include gender identity.
South Korea While the Supreme Court declared that transgender people need to undergo SRS in order to change their legal gender, in 2013 a court ruled that five transgender people could make the change without a surgery, and the same happened in 2017.[57]
Spain All transgender people may change their legal gender without a surgery, including minors.[58]
Sweden In 2012, Sweden stopped requiring transgender people to be coercively sterilized in order to transition,[59] and in 2014, stopped requiring a mental health diagnosis in order to get legal gender recognition.[60]
Switzerland Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13] However, a process to allow a legal gender changes without medical intervention in under public consultation.[61] A proposal to add a third "X" gender marker is also under discussion.[62]
Turkey Requires transgender people to be sterilized in order to have legal gender recognition.[13]
United Kingdom (UK) As of 2015, some politicians are working to introduce passports with an option for an X gender marker.[63] In 2015, the Ministry of Justice refused to allow a nonbinary legal gender.[64] In order to legally transition, you're first required to have a diagnosis of gender dysphoria, and to have lived as your gender for two years, but you're not required to have had surgery.[65] In 2015, the Ministry of Justice stated that, unlike binary trans people, nonbinary people aren't protected under equality law.[66][67] In the UK, most kinds of paperwork and ID show a person's title, which is the main place where gender shows on those documents. Recognition of the gender-neutral title "Mx" is coming to be widespread.
United States of America (USA) While some states allow a third gender marked on official documents such as birth certificates or driving license, the federal government does not recognise any gender designation other than male or female. Each state has different laws regarding legal transition. Most states require proof of surgery in order to legally transition, and the rest require a letter from a doctor saying you've had some kind of transition. In the USA, documents and ID rarely show a person's title.
Vietnam Forces transgender people to go through surgery in order to transition. Before late 2015, transgender people could not change their gender markers.[68]

See also[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. Lauren Bishop. "Gender and Sex Designations for Identification Purposes: A Discussion on Inclusive Documentation for a Less Assimilationist Society." 30 Wis. J.L. Gender & Soc'y 131, 134-35. Fall 2015 (containing a broad comparative discussion of this problem in academic legal scholarship). available at http://hosted.law.wisc.edu/wordpress/wjlgs/fall-2015-volume-xxx-no-2/
  2. "X gender markers on passports." http://lgbt.libdems.org.uk/en/page/x-gender-markers-on-passports
  3. Aron Macarow. "These Seven Countries are Way Ahead of the US on Trans Issues." February 9, 2015. Attn. http://www.attn.com/stories/868/transgender-passport-status
  4. As quoted by Guy Horton in Dying Alive - A Legal Assessment of Human Rights Violations in Burma April 2005, co-Funded by The Netherlands Ministry for Development Co-Operation. See section "12.52 Crimes against humanity", Page 201. He references RSICC/C, Vol. 1 p. 360
  5. Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court http://legal.un.org/icc/statute/romefra.htm
  6. https://www.passports.gov.au/web/sexgenderapplicants.aspx
  7. "NSW Registrar of Births, Deaths and Marriages v Norrie [2014] HCA 11 (2 April 2014)" . High Court of Australia. 2 April 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2015. http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/cases/cth/HCA/2014/11.html
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  21. M/F devient M/F/X: l’administration fédérale veut plus de neutralité liée au sexe lors des recrutements http://www.selor.be/fr/nouvelles/2015/12/mf-devient-mfx-l’administration-fédérale-veut-plus-de-neutralité-liée-au-sexe-lors-des-recrutements/ M/V wordt M/V/X: federale overheid wil meer genderneutraliteit in vacatures http://www.selor.be/nl/nieuws/2015/12/mv-wordt-mvx-federale-overheid-wil-meer-genderneutraliteit-in-vacatures/
  22. Loi du 10 mai 2007 tendant à lutter contre la discrimination entre les femmes et les hommes http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/eli/loi/2007/05/10/2007002098/justel Wet ter bestrijding van discriminatie tussen vrouwen en mannen http://www.ejustice.just.fgov.be/eli/wet/2007/05/10/2007002098/justel
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