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Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles commonly associated with boys and men. Any gender can exhibit masculine traits and behavior.[1] Those exhibiting both masculine and feminine characteristics can be considered androgynous.

Women can also express masculine traits and behaviors.[2][3] In Western culture, female masculinity has been codified into identities such as "tomboy" and "butch". Although female masculinity is often associated with lesbianism, expressing masculinity is not necessarily related to a person's sexuality. In feminist philosophy, female masculinity is often characterized as a type of gender performance which challenges traditional masculinity and patriarchy.[4]

The phrase "toxic masculinity" refers to certain masculine cultural norms that are associated with harm to society, such as the social pressures placed upon men to be violent, competitive, independent, and unfeeling.

Examples of masculinity in modern Western culture

See also

Further reading

  • Nersesyan, Mihran (2 October 2017). "Is Healthy Masculinity a Lost Cause?: A Non-binary Person's Thoughts on New Masculinity". The Body Is Not An Apology.
  • Paramo, Michael (20 October 2017). "Navigating Toxic Masculinity as a Demiguy". Medium.


  1. Taylor, Sonya Renee (17 November 2018). "Masculinity Doesn't Belong to Any Gender and Other Reasons Why Policing Sexuality Does Not Work". The Body Is Not An Apology. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  2. Keith, Thomas (2017). Masculinities in contemporary American culture: an intersectional approach to the complexities and challenges of male identity. New York: Routledge. pp. 4–5. ISBN 9781317595342.
  3. Halberstam, Judith (1998). "Preface". In Halberstam, Judith (ed.). Female Masculinity. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press. p. xi. ISBN 9780822322436. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
  4. Gardiner, Judith Kegan (December 2009). "Female masculinities: a review essay". Men and Masculinities. 11 (5): 622–633. doi:10.1177/1097184X08328448.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
  5. Wade, Lisa; Marx Ferree, Myra (2014). Gender: Ideas, Interactions, Institutions. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 23.
  This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Masculinity, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).
  This article uses material from the Wikipedia article Toxic masculinity, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (view authors).