Voice and speech
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Many societies (human and otherwise) recognise certain rages of vocal communication as being typically 'masculine' or 'feminine'. Consequently, a given individual's own vocal range can trigger a feeling of gender dysphoria in that individual and they may try to alter their vocal range, or 'voice', as a result.
There are several factors which contribute to how a voice is interpreted with regards to gender, and these factors vary between societies. The most commonly recognised of these factors is pitch, which can undergo a dramatic transformation during ones lifetime due to the physical changes associated with puberty or endocrine therapy, for instance. Several studies have identified a gender-ambiguous average pitch at 155-187Hz, a feminine average pitch at 220Hz, and a masculine average pitch at 120Hz (Adler et al 2006, Andrews 1999, Gelfer et al 2000, Spencer 1998, Wolfe et al 1990).
- Mills, Matthew; Stoneham, Gillie (2017). The Voice Book for Trans and Non-Binary People: A Practical Guide to Creating and Sustaining Authentic Voice and Communication.
- Shefcik, Grace; Tsai, Pei-Tzu (2021). "Voice-related Experiences of Nonbinary Individuals (VENI) Development and Content Validity". Journal of Voice. doi:10.1016/j.jvoice.2020.12.037.