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    Surgeries and procedures

    An oophorectomy is the surgical removal of one or both of a person's ovaries. It may also be called ovariectomy but that term is mostly used in reference to non-human animals.

    Oophorectomy is most often performed because of diseases such as ovarian cysts or cancer, or as a preventive measure to reduce the chances of developing ovarian cancer or breast cancer. However, some transmasculine people choose to have an oophorectomy as part of their gender transition. It can be done on its own or along with a hysterectomy.

    Oophorectomy is usually performed by abdominal laparoscopy. The patient usually won't need to spend the night in the hospital.[1]

    Removing both ovaries results in the person no longer having a menstrual cycle, and becoming permanently infertile, although the person may choose to preserve some of their eggs before having their ovaries removed (see the fertility preservation page for details). Oophorectomy also drastically lowers the body's production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone.[2]

    Oophorectomy has been found in cis women to be associated with problems such as an increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures,[3][4][5][6][7] and an increased risk of cardiovascular problems.[8] However, it is not known for sure whether transmasculine patients would have these same increased risks.[8]

    References[edit | edit source]

    1. "Oophorectomy (ovary removal surgery)". Mayo Clinic. Archived from the original on 17 July 2023. Retrieved 4 May 2021.
    2. Pietrangelo, Ann (19 July 2017). "Oophorectomy: Procedure, Recovery, and More". Healthline. Archived from the original on 17 July 2023. Retrieved 3 May 2021.
    3. Kelsey JL, Prill MM, Keegan TH, Quesenberry CP, Sidney S (November 2005). "Risk factors for pelvis fracture in older persons". Am. J. Epidemiol. 162 (9): 879–86. doi:10.1093/aje/kwi295. PMID 16221810. Archived from the original on 17 July 2023.
    4. van der Voort DJ, Geusens PP, Dinant GJ (2001). "Risk factors for osteoporosis related to their outcome: fractures". Osteoporos Int. 12 (8): 630–8. doi:10.1007/s001980170062. PMID 11580076. Archived from the original on 2001-10-24. Retrieved 2009-07-03.
    5. Hreshchyshyn MM, Hopkins A, Zylstra S, Anbar M (October 1988). "Effects of natural menopause, hysterectomy, and oophorectomy on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone densities". Obstet Gynecol. 72 (4): 631–8. PMID 3419740.
    6. Levin RJ (October 2002). "The physiology of sexual arousal in the human female: a recreational and procreational synthesis" (PDF). Arch Sex Behav. 31 (5): 405–11. doi:10.1023/A:1019836007416. PMID 12238607. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 July 2023.
    7. Masters, W.H., et al. The Uterus, Physiological and Clinical Considerations Human Sexual Response 1966 p.111-140
    8. 8.0 8.1 Reilly, Zachary P.; Fruhauf, Timothee F.; Martin, Stephen J. (2019). "Barriers to Evidence-Based Transgender Care: Knowledge Gaps in Gender-Affirming Hysterectomy and Oophorectomy". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 134 (4): 714–717. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000003472. ISSN 0029-7844. Oophorectomy in cisgender women is associated with negative outcomes such as an increase in cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality, most likely attributable to attenuated estrogen levels. There are insufficient outcomes data regarding oophorectomy in transgender men to make the same inference about potential morbidity and mortality.