História do gênero não-binário

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This page is a translated version of the page History of nonbinary gender and the translation is 58% complete.
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This article mentions alguns eventos preocupantes que podem ser traumáticos para alguns leitores. Algumas citações históricas usam linguagem que agora é vista como ofensiva. If you are not comfortable with reading about this kind of topic, we suggest you take a step back.

Este artigo sobre a história de gênero não binário deve se concentrar em eventos direta ou indiretamente relacionados a pessoas com identidades de gênero. Não deve ser sobre a história LGBT em geral. No entanto, esse histórico provavelmente precisará fornecer datas para alguns eventos sobre coisas que não sejam de gênero não binário, como grandes eventos que aumentaram a visibilidade de transgêneros em geral, variação de gênero pessoas do início da história que podem ou pode não ter sido o que consideramos não binários, e as leis que dizem respeito a pessoas intersex que também podem ter um efeito sobre os direitos legais de pessoas não binárias.

Dicas

Aqui estão algumas dicas para escrever respeitosamente sobre pessoas com variações históricas de gênero cujos nomes, pronomes e identidades de gênero preferidos reais podem não ser conhecidos.

  • Nomes mortos. É desrespeitoso chamar uma pessoa transgênero pelo nome anterior ("nome morto") em vez do nome que ela escolheu para si mesma. Alguns consideram seu nome morto um segredo que não deveria ser divulgado de forma alguma. Para pessoas transgênero vivas em particular, esta história deve mostrar apenas seus nomes escolhidos, não seus nomes mortos. Nesta história, algumas pessoas transgênero históricas falecidas podem ter seus nomes de nascimento mostrados além de seus nomes escolhidos, nos casos em que não se sabe qual nome eles preferiram, ou onde de outra forma é impossível encontrar informações sobre essa pessoa, se alguém quiser para pesquisar sua história. Isso deve ser escrito na forma de "Nome Escolhido (nome de nascimento de nascença)." Se a história não tiver certeza de qual nome essa pessoa prefere seriamente, escreva-o na forma de "Nome ou Outro nome".
  • Pronomes. É desrespeitoso chamar uma pessoa por pronomes diferentes daqueles que ela pede. Algumas pessoas históricas cujos pronomes preferidos não são conhecidos devem ser referidas aqui por sem pronomes. Se isso não for possível, pronome elu/delu.
  • Palavras para o sexo de uma pessoa, atribuído e não. É desrespeitoso rotular o sexo de uma pessoa de outra forma que não seja pedido, mas nem sempre é possível fazê-lo. No caso de algumas pessoas históricas, a história registrou como elas viveram e qual gênero a que foram atribuídas no nascimento, mas não como elas preferiram rotular sua identidade de gênero. Por exemplo, não se sabe se certas pessoas históricas que foram designadas do sexo feminino no nascimento (AFAB) viveram como homens porque se identificaram como homens (eram homens transexuais) ou porque era a única maneira de ter uma carreira naquela época e lugar (e eram não conformes com o gênero mulheres cisgênero). Isso deve ser mencionado na forma mais respeitosa de, por exemplo, "homem designado ao nascer (AMAB), vivido como mulher", em vez de "realmente um homem, passado por mulher". Para outro exemplo, escrever "um médico militar descobriu que Smith era AFAB" é mais respeitoso do que dizer "um médico militar descobriu Smith era realmente uma mulher. "Para pessoas que viveram antes da palavra" transgênero "ser criada, pode ser mais adequado chamá-los de" variante de gênero "em vez de" transgênero ". Por outro lado, se tivermos informações suficientes sobre isso como uma pessoa, podemos fazer melhor com essas pessoas, descrevendo-as com a terminologia que provavelmente teriam usado para sua identidade de gênero se vivessem nos dias atuais, com nossa língua.

Eventos desejados nesta linha do tempo

Por favor, ajude a preencher este cronograma se você puder adicionar informações destes tipos: * Eventos no movimento para manter o gênero dos bebês em sigilo.

  • Eventos relativos a celebridades não binárias e pessoas históricas que declararam claramente que não eram nem mulher nem homem, ou ambos, ou andróginos, etc.
  • Percorra blogs não binários em busca de eventos históricos passados ​​e atuais.
  • Eventos que mostram que as identidades de gênero transgênero e especialmente não binárias já existiam muito antes do século XX.
  • Mudanças no uso de linguagem com gênero versus linguagem neutra.

Antiguidade

  • Na mitologia mesopotâmica, entre os primeiros registros escritos da humanidade, há referências a tipos de pessoas que não são nem homens nem mulheres. As tabuinhas sumérias e acadianas do segundo milênio AEC e 1700 AEC descrevem como os deuses criaram essas pessoas, seus papéis na sociedade e palavras para diferentes tipos delas. Entre eles estavam eunucos, mulheres que não podiam ou não tinham permissão para ter filhos, homens que vivem como mulheres, pessoas intersex, gays e outros.[1][2][3]
A palavra "sekhet" em hieróglifos egípcios antigos.[4]
  • Escritos do antigo Egito (Reino do Meio, 2000-1800 aC) diziam que havia três gêneros de humanos: homens, sekhet (sht), e mulheres, nessa ordem. Sekhet é geralmente traduzido como "eunuco", mas isso provavelmente é uma simplificação exagerada do significado dessa categoria de gênero. Uma vez que recebeu esse nível de importância, poderia ser potencialmente uma categoria inteira de variação de gênero / sexo que não se encaixa em masculino ou feminino. Os hieróglifos para sekhet incluem uma figura sentada que geralmente significa um homem. A palavra não inclui hieróglifos que se referem aos órgãos genitais de alguma forma. No mínimo, sekhet provavelmente significa homens gays cisgêneros, no sentido de não terem filhos, e não necessariamente alguém que foi castrado.[5]

Século 11

  • The Anglo-Saxon word wæpen-wifestre, or wæpned-wifestre (Anglo-Saxon, wæpen "sword," "penis," "male" (or wæpned "weaponed," "with a penis," "male") + wif woman, + estre feminine suffix, thus "woman with a weapon," "woman with a penis," or "man woman") was defined in an eleventh-century glossary (Antwerp Plantin-Moretus 32) as meaning "hermaphrodite." The counterpart of this word, wæpned-mann, simply meant "a person armed with a sword" or "male person."[6][7] Wæpen-wifestre is known to be a synonym for "scrat" (intersex).[8] Another synonym given for wæpen-wifestre is bæddel, an which also means intersex, but also feminine men, from which the word "bad" is thought to be derived, due to its use as a slur.[9] The related word bæddling was used in eleventh-century laws for men who had sex with men in a receptive role.[7] Additional meanings of wæpen-wifestre are possible. When wæpen-wifestre is read as "woman with a penis," it could describe a feminine man, a man who has sex with men, or a transgender woman. When read as "woman with a sword," it could refer to a warrior woman. When read as "man woman," it could mean not only an intersex person, but also people who transgressed the gender binary that seems to have been the rule in Anglo-Saxon England, as far as is known from limited literature from that era. From this range of meanings that the word potentially covers, it's possible that wæpen-wifestre may have been a general category for intersex, queer, and gender-variant people in Britain, during the time that was contemporary to Beowulf.

Século XVII

  • A blog post by the Merriam Webster dictionary editors says, "In the 17th century, English laws concerning inheritance sometimes referred to people who didn’t fit a gender binary using the pronoun it, which, while dehumanizing, was conceived of as being the most grammatically fit answer to gendered pronouns around then."[10] This is an example of people being considered legally outside of male and female. Editors at this wiki would appreciate more information and sources about the laws in question, their dates, and what categories of people they referred to. (Unborn children? Intersex people? People who didn't conform to gender norms?)
  • Thomas Hall, who apparently had an equal preference for the birth-name Thomasine (c.1603 – after 1629), was an English servant in colonial Virginia. Hall was raised as a girl, and then presented as a man in order to enter the military.[11] After leaving the military, Hall freely alternated between feminine and masculine attire from one day to the next, until Hall was accused of having sex with both men and women. Whether someone was legally a man or a woman would result in different punishments for that. Several physical examinations disagreed on the details of Hall's sex, and concluded that Hall had been born intersex. Previously, common law required that if a court concluded that someone was intersex, this would result in an injunction that they must live the rest of their life as strictly either male or female, whichever their anatomy resembled the most closely. In this case, the court ruled that "hee is a man and a woeman," and gave the injunction that Hall must from then on wear both masculine and feminine clothing at the same time: "goe clothed in man's apparell, only his head to bee attired in a coyfe and croscloth with an apron before him"[12][13] Intersex is not the same thing as nonbinary, and so an intersex person can identify as a man, woman, or some other gender. Hall was apparently an intersex person who did not identify strictly as a man or woman, preferred a fluid gender expression, and was then given a legal sex that was both.

Século XVIII

Um retrato do Public Universal Friend, da biografia do Friend, escrita por David Hudson em 1821.
  • "Singular they" had already been the standard gender-neutral pronoun in English for hundreds of years. However, in 1745, prescriptive grammarians began to say that it was no longer acceptable. Their reasoning was that neutral pronouns don't exist in Latin, which was thought to be a better language, so English shouldn't use them, either. They instead began to recommend using "he" as a gender-neutral pronoun.[14] This started the dispute over the problem of acceptable gender-neutral pronouns in English, which has carried on for centuries now.
  • Māhū ("no meio") nas culturas Kanaka Maoli (havaiana) e Maohi (taitiana) são terceiro gênero pessoas com papéis espirituais e sociais tradicionais dentro da cultura. A categoria de gênero māhū existia em suas culturas durante os tempos de pré-contato e ainda existe hoje. .[15] Na história pré-colonial do Havaí, os māhū eram sacerdotes e curandeiros notáveis, embora grande parte dessa história tenha sido omitida pela intervenção de missionários. A primeira descrição ocidental escrita de māhū ocorre em 1789, no diário de bordo do Capitão William Bligh do Bounty, que parou no Taiti, onde foi apresentado a um membro de uma "classe de pessoas muito comum em Otaheitie chamada Mahoo ... que embora eu fosse certo era um homem, tinha grandes marcas de efeminação sobre ele."[16]
  • O Public Universal Friend (1752 - 1819) foi uma pessoa evangelista sem gênero que viajou por todo o leste dos Estados Unidos para pregar uma teologia baseada na dos Quakers, que era ativamente contra a escravidão. Acreditava que Deus os havia reanimado de uma doença grave aos 24 anos com um novo espírito, que não tinha gênero, e recusou-se identificar-se pelo nome de nascimento,[17] even on legal documents,[18] e preferia o uso de nenhum pronome. Os seguidores respeitaram esses desejos, evitando pronomes específicos de gênero, mesmo em diários privados, e referindo-se apenas a "Public Universal Friend" ou formas curtas como "o Friend" ou "PUF".[19] Usava roupas que os contemporâneos descreveram como andróginas, que geralmente eram túnicas pretas. Os seguidores de The Friend ficaram conhecidos como Sociedade de Amigos Universais e incluíam pessoas negras e muitas mulheres solteiras que assumiam papéis masculinos em suas comunidades. [20]
  • Jens Andersson was a nonbinary person in Norway, who married a woman in 1781. It was soon discovered that Andersson had a female body, and the marriage was annulled, while Andersson was accused of sodomy. In the trial, Andersson was asked: "Are you a man or a woman?" It was recorded that the answer was that "he thinks he may be both".[1]
  • Romaine-la-Prophétesse foi líder de uma revolta de escravos em 1791-92, no início da Revolução Haitiana, que por um tempo governou grande parte do sul do Haiti, incluindo duas grandes cidades. Romaine identificou-se como profetisa, vestiu-se como mulher e falou que estava possuída por um espírito feminino, mas também foi identificada como afilhada da Virgem Maria e usou pronomes masculinos em autorreferências em cartas ditadas; Romaine foi, portanto, interpretada por estudiosos modernos como talvez gênero-fluido[21] or transgender,[21][22] ou pode ter sido bigênero.

Século XIX

We'Wha, uma pessoa Zuni de dois espíritos (Lhamana) que viveu de 1849-1896.
  • We'wha (1849–1896) was a Zuni Native American from New Mexico, and the most famous lhamana on record. In traditional Zuni culture, the lhamana take on roles and duties associated with both men and women, and they wear a mixture of women's and men's clothing. They work as mediators. As a notable fiber artist, weaver, and potter, We'wha was a prominent cultural ambassador for Native Americans in general, and the Zuni in particular. In 1886, We'wha was part of the Zuni delegation to Washington D.C.. They were hosted by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and, during that visit, We'wha met President Grover Cleveland. Friends and relatives alternated masculine and feminine pronouns for We'Wha. We'wha was described as being highly intelligent, having a strong character, and always being kind to children.[23][24]

1870s

Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-1895), que descreveu "um sexo neutro" que não era fisicamente intersexo.
  • Karl Heinrich Ulrichs (1825-1895) developed a theory in which men who are attracted to men and women who are attracted to women are thus because they are members of a third sex, a mixture of both male and female, and with the psyche or essence of the "opposite" sex, even though their bodies look like cis-gender male and female bodies. The terms "homosexual," "bisexual," and "heterosexual" didn't exist yet, so he coined terms for them all. The overall phenomenon he called Uranismus (in the original German, Urningtum), gay men were uranians (German urnings), lesbians were uraniads (German urningin, as -in is the feminine suffix), whereas heterosexuals were Dionings, so bisexual men were uranodionings, and so on, all of which were distinct from zwitter (intersex). Ulrichs based this naming system on "Plato's Symposium, where two different kinds of love [...are] ruled by two different goddesses of love-- Aphrodite, daughter of Uranus, and Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus and Dione. The second Aphrodite rules those who love the opposite sex." [25] Ulrichs argued that their condition was as natural and healthy as that of what we now call heterosexual people, and he started the movement fighting for their equal legal rights to express their love "between consenting adults, with the free consent of both parties," in his words from 1870, and that they should not be pathologized nor criminalized for doing so.[26]. Although Uranismus was generally addressed in terms of orientation, Ulrichs specifically described various categories of uranians in terms of their gender nonconformity and gender variance. For example, in regard to feminine gay men or queens (who he called Weiblings), Ulrichs wrote in 1879,
    "The Weibling is a total mixture of male and female, in which the female element is even predominant, a thoroughly hermaphroditically organized being. Despite his male sexual organs, he is more woman than man. He is a woman with male sexual organs. He is a neutral sex. He is a neuter. He is the hermaphrodite of the ancients."[27]
Ulrichs prossegue dizendo que a contraparte direta do Weibling entre aqueles que foram designados como mulher no nascimento é "o Mannlingin de inspiração masculina e amante de mulheres", que é igualmente variante de gênero.t.[27] Ulrichs enfatiza que o Uranismo inclui pessoas com variação de gênero, distintas daquelas que se conformam com seu gênero, e também distintas de pessoas nascidas com características intersexuais físicas. Como tal, o Uranismo incluía pessoas que hoje podem ser identificadas como não binárias.

1880s

  • The earliest known true transsexual genital conversion surgery of any kind was performed in 1882 on a trans man named Herman Karl.[28] However, "earliest transsexual genital conversion surgery" depends on one's definition. Eunuchs have been around for all of human history, and while many eunuchs consider themselves cisgender men, many others consider themselves another gender that isn't female or male, such as hijra. Some sources credit the first trans male genital conversion surgery as, instead, the one performed on a trans man named Michael Dillon in the 1930s, perhaps depending on how one defines that surgery.

1890s

  • Based on Ulrich's work in the 1870s, which were the foundation of Western notions of LGBT people for the next several decades, clinical beliefs around the time of the 1890s "conflat[ed] sex, sexual orientation, and gender expression," thinking of (to use modern words for them) gay, lesbian, transgender, and gender non-conforming people as all having some kind of intersex condition. Such people were said to have "sexual inversion," and were called "inverts."[29]. Another name used for the same category through the 1890s and 1910s was "the intermediate sex," or the "intermediates," which was not physically intersex, and was understood to be often (though not always) gender nonconforming.[30]
  • "In 1895, a group of self-described 'androgynes' in New York organized a 'little club called the Cercle Hermaphroditos, based on their self-perceived need 'to unite for defense against the world's bitter persecution.'" This group included people who, in today's words, may have called themselves cross-dressers and transgender people.[31] The group included a nonbinary autobiographer, Jennie June.

Século XX

Em 1933, os nazistas em Berlim queimaram obras de esquerdistas e outros autores considerados "não-alemães", incluindo milhares de livros roubados da biblioteca do Instituto de Pesquisa Sexual de Hirschfeld.
  • During the 1910s, German sexologist Magnus Hirschfeld created the word "transvestite," which at the time meant many more kinds of transgender and even transsexual people. Hirschfeld opened the first clinic to regularly serve them.[32] Hirschfeld's Institute of Sex Research had a library of literature about LGBT people, collected from all over Europe, that couldn't be found anywhere else. This started to bring about a revolution in how society understood and accepted LGBT people, and allowing children to be gender nonconforming. Then, in 1933, the Nazis destroyed it all. This set back LGBT rights for another 40 or so years. The progress wasn't matched again until at least 1990.
  • O estudioso Jennie June (nascida em 1874) se identificou como "fada", "andrógino", "homem afeminado" e "invertido", termos contemporâneos para gênero e variância sexual. Sua transição incluiu mudar seu nome completo para Jennie June, e escolher ser castrada, a fim de reduzir os pelos faciais e os desejos sexuais que a perturbavam. June publicou sua primeira autobiografia, The Autobiography of an Androgyne em 1918, e seu segundo The Female-Impersonators em 1922. Seu objetivo ao escrever seus livros era ajudar a criar um ambiente de aceitação para jovens adultos que fazem não aderir a gênero e normas sexuais, porque era isso que ela queria para si mesma, e ela queria evitar que os jovens cometessem suicídio.[33] June had formed the Cercle Hermaphroditos in 1895, along with other androgynes who frequented Paresis Hall in New York City. The organization was formed in the hopes "to unite for defense against the world's bitter persecution," and to show that it was natural to be gender and sex variant.[34]

1940s

  • Durante a Segunda Guerra Mundial, o artista surrealista judeu Claude Cahun (que descreveu seu gênero como "neutro") Template:Cite o livro com seu parceiro de vida Marcel Moore (também um artista judeu que escolheu um nome neutro) engajado no trabalho de resistência e ativismo contra os nazistas durante o Ocupação alemã da França. Em 1944, Cahun e Moore foram presos pelos nazistas e condenados à morte, mas a sentença nunca foi executada porque a ilha foi libertada da ocupação alemã em 1945.[35]

1960s

  • Although the earliest known recorded mention of the gender-neutral title Mx was in a magazine article in 1977,[36][37] anecdotes say it was in use as far back as 1965.[38][39]

1970s

  • During the 1970s and 1980s, feminists Casey Miller and Kate Swift were significant influences on encouraging people to take up gender inclusive language, as an alternative to sexist language that excludes or dehumanizes women. Some of their books on this are Words and Women (1976) and The Handbook of Nonsexist Writing (1980). They also encoraged the use of gender neutral pronouns.[40] Though their work doesn't directly acknowledge the existence of people outside the gender binary, it did help break down societal views of masculine-as-default, and even the extent of the gender binary in language.
  • Up until the 1970s, LGBT people of all kinds largely had a sense of being on the same side together. A major rift started in 1979, when cisgender woman Janice Raymond wrote the book Transsexual Empire, which outlined a transphobic conspiracy theory which told cisgender women to fear trans women. This started the trans-exclusionary movement. As a result, many feminist, lesbian, and women-only spaces became hostile to trans women. This dividing issue made it difficult for feminism to develop an understanding of transgender issues in general. In response, the movement of transgender studies began with an essay by trans woman Sandy Stone in 1987.[41]

1980s

  • In the 1980s, the handbook of psychiatry, the DSM-III, included "Gender Identity Disorder" to diagnose people as transsexual.[42] It frames being trans as a strictly pathological mental condition. Getting this diagnosis becomes a necessary step for many trans people to transition. Psychologists during this time believed that a legitimately trans person needed to conform very closely to the gender binary, and even needed to be heterosexual. The psychologists focused on trans women, and isolated them from one another, so they had little community. Meanwhile, trans men got less help from that system, and so they largely left it and formed their own communities.[43]
  • In the 1980s and 1990s, Michael Spivak used a set of gender-neutral "E, Emself" pronouns in his math books, in order to avoid indicating a person's gender. The same or similar pronoun had been coined independently by others in prior years. Due to how Spivak popularized these particular pronouns, these soon became known as "spivak pronouns" when they were built into a place where people talked together on the Internet.[44]

1990s

  • In 1990, the Native American/First Nations gay and lesbian conference chooses Two-Spirit as a better English umbrella term for some gender identities unique to Native American cultures, many of which can be considered as outside of the Western gender binary.[45]
  • The 1990 Bisexual Manifesto published in bi zine "Anything That Moves" shows explicit support of nonbinary gender by stating "Do not assume that bisexuality is binary or duogamous in nature: that we have 'two' sides or that we must be involved simultaneously with both genders to be fulfilled human beings. In fact, don’t assume that there are only two genders."[46]
  • In 1994, Kate Bornstein, who currently identifies as nonbinary,[47] published the book Gender Outlaw: On Men, Women, and the Rest of Us, about her experience as a transgender person identifying outside of the gender binary.
  • The earliest known use of the word "genderqueer" is by Riki Anne Wilchins in the Spring 1995 newsletter of Transexual Menace. In 1995 she was published in the newsletter In Your Face, where she used the term genderqueer.[49] In the newsletter, the term appears to refer to people with complex or unnamed gender expressions. Wilchins stated she identifies as genderqueer in her 1997 autobiography.[50]
  • In 1998, an article from a transgender community on the Internet, Sphere, used the words "queergendered" and "polygendered" interchangeably as umbrella terms for everyone whose gender was outside the gender binary, specifying that these included people who were "bi-gendered, non-gendered, or third-gendered," explaining that some faced difficulty in seeking a gender-ambiguous physical transition.[51]
  • No final dos anos 1990, as pessoas no Japão que não se identificavam como homem nem mulher começaram a se autodenominar gênero X.

Século XXI

Uma hijra paquistanesa em um protesto entre dois grupos hijra de Islamabad e Rawalpindi. 2008
Primeira parada do orgulho gay de gênero da Ásia em Madurai, 2012.
Manifestantes do orgulho de dois espíritos no Orgulho de São Francisco de 2014.

2000s

  • Intersex Australian Alex MacFarlane believed to be the first person in Australia to obtain a birth certificate recording sex as indeterminate, and the first Australian passport with an "X" sex marker. Australia began to let people mark their gender as "X" on their birth certificates and passports.[52][53]
  • In 2009, India began to allow voters outside the gender binary to "register their gender as 'other' on ballots submitted to the Election Commission."[54]

2010s

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2010

  • In December, the US state of Arkansas enacted a policy allowing gender on drivers' licenses and state ID cards to be changed to M, F, or X with "no questions asked, no documentation required". However, this policy received very little attention until 2018.[55]

2011

  • In 2011, Bangladesh started to allow passports to show a gender called "other".[56][57]

2012

2013

  • A newer version of the handbook of psychiatry, the DSM-5, replaces the "gender identity disorder" diagnosis with "gender dysphoria," to lessen the pathologization of transgender people.[58]
  • A nonbinary tumblr user coins the term "enby" as a shorthand for "nonbinary person".[59]

2014

  • A Suprema Corte da Índia decidiu a favor dos direitos e reconhecimento legal de "índios que não se identificam como homem nem mulher, ou aqueles que se identificam como mulheres transexuais, conhecidos como hijra".[54]
  • O site de rede social Facebook começou a permitir que os usuários escolhessem entre 50 opções de gênero.
  • A comunidade transgênero no site de rede social Tumblr criou centenas de pronomes.

2015

  • Nepal began to allow X gender passports.[60]
  • Singer, songwriter, and actor Miley Cyrus explained she didn't relate to being a girl or a boy.[65]

2016

  • In the USA, the states of Oregon and then California began to allow for a nonbinary legal gender, though getting this recognized on identity documents (driver's licenses and passports) is another matter. California began to allow nonbinary driver's licenses.[66]
  • In April, Merriam-Webster added cisgender, genderqueer, and Mx. to its unabridged dictionary.[67]

2017

  • In the USA, California passed the 2017 Gender Recognition Act "to ensure that intersex, transgender, and nonbinary people have state-issued identification documents that provide full legal recognition of their accurate gender identity."[68][69]
  • In June 2017, USA's District of Colombia began to offer nonbinary driver's licenses and identification cards.[70] Activist Shige Sakurai was the first to receive one of these "X"-marked licenses.[71] Soon after, the state of Oregon also began to issue gender-neutral IDs.[70]
  • The country of Malta began to offer "X" gender markers on passports and other documents.[72]
  • Popular musician Sam Smith came out stating in an interview that "I don't know what the title would be but I feel just as much woman as I am man." [73]

2018

  • In January, Washington state began to allow "X" gender markers on official documents[74], with the law stating that
« "X" means a gender that is not exclusively male or female, including, but not limited to, intersex, agender, amalgagender, androgynous, bigender, demigender, female-to-male, genderfluid, genderqueer, male-to-female, neutrois, nonbinary, pangender, third sex, transgender, transsexual, Two Spirit, and unspecified.[75] »

2019

  • In March, nonbinary person Finley Norris became the first person in the state of Indiana, USA to receive a driver's license with an "X" gender marker.[71]
  • Google released 53 new emoji variations with specifically gender neutral appearance.[78]
  • Merriam-Webster declared "they" as the top Word of the Year.[79]
  • Collins Dictionary added the word "non-binary".[80]
  • "Genderqueer", "agender", "cisgender", "misgender", "transphobia", and "ze" are added to the international Scrabble dictionary.[81]
  • Canada's 2019 Census Test (in preparation for the 2021 Census) now includes separate questions about sex at birth and gender, and also allows nonbinary gender answers.[82]
  • The American Psychological Association (APA) Style Guide is updated to endorse the use of singular they: "Writers should use the singular 'they' in two main cases: (a) when referring to a generic person whose gender is unknown or irrelevant to the context and (b) when referring to a specific, known person who uses 'they' as their pronoun."[83]

2020

  • American presidential candidate Elizabeth Warren promises that if she is elected, she will have "at least 50% of Cabinet positions filled by women and non binary people."[84][85]
  • On February 25, Ro Khanna, a Democratic member of the USA House of Representatives, proposed the Gender Inclusive Passport Act, which would add an "X" option to USA passports.[86]
  • Marvel Comics' series The New Warriors introduced a nonbinary superhero named "Snowflake", and received widespread backlash.[87]
  • In the USA, Virginia Governor Ralph Northam signed Senate Bill 246 on March 31, allowing for driver's license applicants to mark “male,” “female” or “non-binary” when designating their sex. The bill goes into effect July 1.[88]
  • The 2020 USA Census made headlines for lack of a nonbinary gender option.[89][90]

Further reading

Referências

  1. Murray, Stephen O., and Roscoe, Will (1997). Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History, and Literature. New York: New York University Press.
  2. Nissinen, Martti (1998). Homoeroticism in the Biblical World, Translated by Kirsi Stjedna. Fortress Press (November 1998) p. 30. ISBN|0-8006-2985-X
    See also: Maul, S. M. (1992). Kurgarrû und assinnu und ihr Stand in der babylonischen Gesellschaft. Pp. 159–71 in Aussenseiter und Randgruppen. Konstanze Althistorische Vorträge und Forschungern 32. Edited by V. Haas. Konstanz: Universitätsverlag.
  3. Leick, Gwendolyn (1994). Sex and Eroticism in Mesopotamian Literature. Routledge. New York.
  4. Mark Brustman. "The Third Gender in Ancient Egypt." "Born Eunuchs" Home Page and Library. 1999. https://people.well.com/user/aquarius/egypt.htm
  5. Sethe, Kurt, (1926), Die Aechtung feindlicher Fürsten, Völker und Dinge auf altägyptischen Tongefäßscherben des mittleren Reiches, in: Abhandlungen der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse, 1926, p. 61.
  6. Dana Oswald, Monsters, Gender and Sexuality in Medieval English Literature. Rochester, NY: D.S. Brewer, 2010. p. 93.
  7. 7.0 7.1 David Clark. Between medieval men: Male friendship and desire in early medieval English literature. Oxford University Press, 2009. P. 63-65.
  8. Catholicon Anglicum: An English-Latin Word-book, dated 1483, volume 30. Accessed via Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=I7wKAAAAYAAJ&dq=%22W%C3%A6pen-wifestre%22&pg=PA325#v=onepage&q=%22W%C3%A6pen-wifestre%22&f=false
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